Publisher: Harvard Group, The

Started in November 1980 as Syntax ZX80 by Kirtland Olson to support the Sinclair ZX80, Syntax was the longest running professional magazine to support the Timex/Sinclair computers.

In August 1982, prior to the launch of the Timex/Sinclair 1000, Syntax ZX80 became Syntax.

The last issue was published at the end of 1984, just over five years after it started.

Syntax enjoyed a good relationship with Sinclair and Timex, often publishing authoritative information directly quoted from both companies.


  • [Break Out of Program Expecting Input]
    How to break out of programs stuck in loops that expect numeric or character input.
  • [Computer Software Act of 1980]
    Congress passed the Computer Software Act of 1980 to protect the rights of people and companies who write, develop, sell, or lease software.
  • [Cut RF interference to the ZX80]
  • [Dann Weldkamp would like to hear ...]
    Reader in Iowa.
  • [If you have a logic probe ... ]
    Use logic probe to record state of ICs in the computer.
  • [MicroAce Owners...]
    Sinclair’s owner’s manual is available by mail from Sinclair Research.
  • [Rochester Institute of Technology offers two intensive computer courses for deaf adults...]
  • [The 8K ROM produces a different screen display than the 4K ROM.]
  • [The following SYNTAX readers wish to contact ...]
    Readers from Califonia, Florida, Illinois, Maryland.
  • [These readers would like to contact others...]
    Readers in Illinois and Ontario.
  • [These readers would like to hear ...]
    Readers in California and Texas.
  • [These SYNTAX readers would like to contact ...]
    Readers from Louisiana and Nebraska.
  • [These SYNTAX readers would like to hear ...]
    Readers from Kentucky, Nevada and Ontario.
  • [These SYNTAX readers would like to hear from others in their areas]
    Readers from Ohio, New York and Washington, DC.
  • [These SYNTAX readers would like to hear...]
    Readers from California and Texas.
  • [Would you like a ZX80 interface to the outside world?]
  • $100 for Your ZX/TS; Up to $330 for Memotech
    Memotech will buy back your Memotech Timex-Sinclair add-ons at 50% of current suggested retail value and even take your ZX/TS for $100—all credited toward your purchase of your MTX or FDX system.
  • 1500s On Their Way, 2068s Close Behind
    Our Timex source says a few TS1500s began their way to your local stores the first week of September. The FCC approved the TS2068 recently; expect it in stores by October.
  • 16K RAM Approved; New Interface
    Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved Sinclair’s 16K RAM for the U.S. market. C.A.I. Instruments has completed work on three interfaces.
  • 16K RAM power
  • 2K Conversion with 6116s
    ZX81 will accept two 2114 RAM chips or one 6116 RAM, for total of 2K.
  • 3D Monster Maze
    Review of the game published by Melbourne House.
  • 45-Player Computer Game Up In Miami
    American Software Technology is testing an interactive, multi-user, real-time game where you interact with other players as well as the computer.
  • 49 Explosive Games for the ZX81
    Review of the book by Tim Hartnell.
  • 4K Programs on 8K ROM
    8K ROM won’t load 4K tapes.
  • 4K RAM Units Available Soon
    Static Memory Systems will sell 4K RAM packs for ZX80s and MicroAces.
  • 4K ROM Listing - Initialization
    Computer initialization routine in 4K ROM.
  • 4K ROM: Display Routine
    DISPLAY begins the 4K ROM’s input/output module at 013Ch, or 316d.
  • 4K/1K Blackjack
    In this 4K/1K ZX80 version of 21 you play one-on-one against the computer-dealer. It deals you two cards face up. To take another card, hit NL; to hold, press SPACE NL. The ZX80 then plays out its hand and shows if you win or lose.
  • 4K/8K ROM Switch
    Review of the ROM switch kit from Marex Electronics.
  • 64 Column Type
    This program allows you to type a full screen (24 lines by 64 characters) on your TS2068. It’s primarily in BASIC, so it runs rather slow and will not keep up with most typists.
  • 64K RAM Available Mid-March
  • 6K RAM Addition
    Frustrated by the limitations of 2K RAM, Jim Graham of Oakham, MA, put 6K “under the hood” of his ZX81. He finds it a comfortable compromise, freeing up the edge connector for I/O use. The wirewrapped module consists of four sockets welded together, needs no board modifications and plugs into the existing RAM socket.
  • 8K MC Video Invert Routine
    Machine code program can almost instantly change everything on the screen to inverse video.
  • 8K Memory PEEK
    This slow but simple program peeks memory 100 bytes at a time. It displays consecutive bytes in 5 columns by 20 rows. Designed for the ZX81, it works with 16K RAM.
  • 8K ROM Changes
    Revisions to previous programs for 8K ROM.
  • 8K ROM Monitor Routines
    Continuation of article from prior issue examining the 8K ROM.
  • 8K ROM Printer Commands
    LLIST — Lists to printer instead of screen, LPRINT — Directs output to printer instead of screen, COPY — Outputs screen display to printer.
  • 8K ROM Programs Here!
    Our technical staff has the only prototype 8K ROM in the U.S. and we’re wording on programs so you will be able to use your new ROM immediately. We’re especially impressed by the graphics capability and the PLOT-DRAW-PRINT sequence.
  • 8K ROM Update
    Sinclair now has another source of 8K ROMs. According to Nigel Searle, the new manufacturer will deliver by September 1 enough ROMs to both replace bad ROMs and satisfy demand for new ones.
  • 8K ROM, 16K RAM Updates
    8K ROMs will arrive in late February. RAMs, no firm date.
    Program scans the ROM up to 7679, building a stack of CALLED and CALLING addresses. Then it sorts and displays them.
  • 8K ROMS, New Machine from MicroAce
    MicroAce will sell 8K ROMs for MicroAce and ZX80 computers within 8 weeks, according to Chris Cary, head of Compshop, Ltd. The ROMs are identical to Sinclair’s and are licensed by them. By August MicroAce expects to ship their new MicroAce II. Also in kit form, the MicroAce II will have 16K RAM, 8K ROM,
  • 8K Syntactic Sum
    Modified version for 8K ROM.
  • 8K/16K Owners
    Zeta Software of Greenville, SC, now offers 8K/16K program cassettes. Their latest catalog lists a flicker-free scifi adventure and statistical math packages.
  • 8K/1K Slot Machine
    Another free sample software review—a program directly from New England Software’s tape.
  • A Night in Las Vegas
    Review of the cassette from Lamo-Lem.
  • A Package From England, or, How I got a real ZX Printer
    Details on ordering a printer from WH Smith and adapting for US use.
  • A Practical Guide to Machine Language Programming on the Timex/Sinclair
    Using only 16 chapters and 8 appendices, the author takes you on a guided tour of the Z80 in Sinclair country, distinguishing the CPU properties from the system behavior with clarity and flair. Your tour guide is an expert whose practical experience includes writing the word processor “WORD*” on which this book is written. Appendix
  • A Report on the Spectrum
    The Spectrum is a ZX81 that has been developed by adding a hi-resolution display, color board, improved cassette interface and larger keyboard.
  • A Sojourn at Compuserve
    Overview of Compuserve and its services.
  • A Tool to Help Debug Programs
    To determine what occurs during a loop portion of a malfuntioning program, use a PRINT statement called a flag.
  • Accounts
    ACCOUNTS, an accounting program for small businesses, computerizes your DOME monthly accounting book.
  • ACZ General Ledger
    ACZ General Ledger, a very reliable double entry bookkeeping and accounting system, caters to small business needs.
  • Add Store & Recall to BASIC
    STORE transfers a screen image (display file) above RAMTOP to be re-displayed by the RECALL command.
  • Adding a Joystick to Your ZX81
    Wire a joystick to map to the arrow keys.
  • Addition Through 7 Digits
    Add 7 digit numbers as long as the total doesn’t exceed 7 digits.
  • Address and Phone Book
    This 4k program stores ASCII as codes into an array, getting areund the 4K BASIC’s lack of string arrays. It stores and prints names and addresses one at a time. This program runs in a 2K machine; for 1K RAM reduce DIM A.
  • Addressing: A Brief Tutorial
    If you find ROM, RAM & PORT addressing and decoding confusing, here’s some explanation of what’s what.
  • Adventure A
    Adventure is not for impatient or unimaginative players. It has no bombs, no graphics, and no split-second decisions. It is an intellectual game requiring thought rather than reflexes.
  • AERCO FD-ZX Floppy Disk
    AERCO’s disk system consists of three major components: interface board, disk drive and power supply.
  • AI Application to be Implemented in QL
    Sinclair Research just announced a medical advisor package now being written for the QL.
  • All-Purpose Beeper
    Circuit to emit a “beep” every time your ZX80 or MicroAce reads from or writes to a selected memory address.
  • Alphacom to Sell ZX/TS Printers Direct
    Alphacom sells VP-42 printer.
  • An Introduction to VU-CALC Spreadsheeting for the Timex/Sinclair 1000 and the Sinclair ZX81
    Review of the book.
  • Analog-Digital Converter
    Use with the BB-1 I/O board. Converts at 2.5v and 5v to 8 bit values (0-255).
  • Analogies, Logical Reasoning
    Analogies and Logical Reasoning, two separate programs, pleasantly teach important concepts in logical thought.
  • Annotated 4K ROM Listing
    The 4K ROM SAVE routine listing, including the original designer’s notes.
  • Annotated 4K ROM Listing - Systems Variables
    Listing tells you the values of all major variables used in the 4K ROM.
  • Annotated 4K ROM: LOAD Routine
    Assembly for the 4K ROM’s LOAD routine. LOAD begins in ROM location 0206H, or 518d.
  • Annuity
    Program calculates the payments needed to pay off a loan or how many years it takes to pay off a loan at a fixed payment.
  • Another $100 Misunderstanding
    Tips for constructing the ZX81 kit.
  • Another Look at 450ns EPROMS vs the ZX81/TS1000
    Paul Hunter’s comments on using 450ns EPROMs on ZX/TS computers (May83) strike me as true but incomplete. Paul shows how to add a flip-flop to delay the computer by inserting wait states and thus make the computer read slow EPROMS. You can use another chip select scheme to cure access problems without adding circuitry or
  • Archer
    Test your archery skills and learn some fundamental physics at the same time. ARCHER simulates the effects of gravity, angle and velocity on bow-and-arrow trajectory.
  • ASCII Program for ZX/TS Computer
    CAI just announced an ASCII program to let the ZX/TS computers equipped with CAI/O boards operate as a standard ASCII CRT terminal.
  • Asteroids
    Machine language game: avoid the asteroids.
  • Attention TS1000 Owners
    All information about ZX81s in SYNTAX also refers to Timex-Sinclair 1000s.
  • Authorized Sinclair Repair Services
    MicroSync will take over Sinclair’s repair work for ZX80s and ZX81s.
  • Authorized Software
    Image Computer Products of Northbrook, IL, is the authorized ZX80 software producer.
  • Automatic Recorder Control
    Call the LOAD routine directly.
  • Awari
    Awari is an ancient African game for two players. Six piles of three stones each are arranged in front of opposing players, with each player’s “home” to the right of the piles. The play consists of taking all the stones in one of the player’s piles and, moving counterclockwise, dropping one stone in each pile
  • Banner Writer
    Use the TS2040 to print banners.
  • Bar Chart
    Bar Chart uses the 8K PLOT function to simplify the bar chart algorithm. It assumes B(15) has been filled, or partially filled, with values between 0 and 2000.
  • Bar Graphics
    This program, written for a 2K MicroAce, draws bar charts on a white background with dark defined lines and a graphpaper-like effect behind the bars. It will choose 10 (0 to 10) random numbers to graph, or you can select them.
  • Basic Computer Programs for Business, Vol. 1
    While visiting a favorite book store, I discovered a treasure chest of jewels suitable to adorn the ZX80/81. This book offers “over 35 programs covering budgets, depreciation, cash flow, property comparisons, accounts payable, order entry, warehouse locations, inventory turnover analysis, job routing, resource allocation, production scheduling,” just to name a few listed on the cover.
  • BASIC NL Seeks More Money
    In V.l, No.4, the publishers of this Timex-Sinclair related newsletter announced their interest in “an interested party (to) merge resources for the purpose of continued growth.”
  • Basic Salary Scheduling
    Calculate salaries that increment on a straight-line basis.
  • BASICare Offers ZX81 Megabyte Memory Decoding
    BASICare of London introduced their Organic Micro system for ZX81s.
  • Battery Pack Case
    Battery pack adaptable to the ZX80.
  • BB-1 8-Bit Input/Output Module Kit
    Two Intel 8212 8-bit I/O port chips are the heart of the BB-1. Byte-Back’s module is compatible with both ZX and Timex units and neatly uses memory locations 32764 and 32766 to store input and output information.
  • Beginner's Basic -- INKEY$ Function
    The INKEY$ function, though more obscure than commands like SAVE and RUN, is simple to use and adds a nice touch to your programs.
  • Beginner's Column - Error Codes and Debugging Programs
    One of the ZX80/MicroAce’s nicest features keeps you from entering lines with syntactic errors into a program.
  • Beginner's Loading ML Programs
    Learn how to put machine language (ML) programs into your computer.
  • Beginner's ROM and RAM Addresses
    ROM and RAM addresses in 4K ROM, 1K RAM machines.
  • Beginners - Analyzing the Problem
    The first step in solving a problem with a computer is analyzing how you would solve it without one.
  • Beginners: User-Friendly Programs
    Some easy programming methods to write user-friendly programs for either 4K or 8K ROM programs.
  • Beginners' Column: REM Revisited
    Storing machine code in REM statements.
  • Beginners' Computing Magazine
    OnComputing changes its name to Popular Computing.
  • Beginners' Dimensioned Arrays
    Although BASIC uses simple English commands, the DIM statement is one of those that takes a little explanation.
  • Beginners' ML -- Register to Register
    Examines the loading, adding and subtracting instructions. Number 5 in series.
  • Beginning Programming: ZX81 Math
    Article expands on bits, bytes and binary numbers over the ZX81 and TS1000 manual.
  • Beginning Programs -- For-Next Loops
    For-next loops consist of 2 control statements, FOR.. TO and NEXT. These allow you to tell the computer to do a maximum number of steps in a minimum number of commands when you need the same calculation carried out several times with different variables.
  • Better Scrolling
    Techniques to improve scrollig.
  • Big Character Program
    Make your video characters 8 times bigger using ROM character images and substituting graphic symbols for dots.
  • Binary Addition and Subtraction
    The point to learning how to add and subtract binary numbers is to see how “carries” are generated and what happens to those extra digits.
  • Binary Representation
    Knowing how to manipulate individual bits in your ZX80 is essential for efficient Machine Code programmming, so knowing what bits and bytes are is essential also.
  • Bingo Card Generator
    Short program to generate bingo cards.
  • Bingo Number Generator
    Generates numbers with their preceding letters and prints them at 8x their normal size at the top of the screen.
  • Biorhythms
    I wrote this program as a result of a great disappointment I experienced after purchasing a Biorhythms program from one of the prominent software companies. The program did not print an accurate set of curves, and did not print a mathematically correct result.
  • Blast
    Combine Star Hunter and Blast Effects into a new game.
  • Blast Effects on ZX81
    Subroutine simulates laser, cannon shot and other effect used in arcade-type games.
  • Bookworm
    This program will help you manage your book, comic book, or phonograph record collection. See the article for special LOAD/RUN instructions.
  • Boolean Demonstration
    Program demonstrates boolean logic.
  • Breakeven Analysis
    This program requires only a single video format for all control data input with an option to erase and re-enter data. This option occurs just before computation, which doesn’t begin until you approve data entries.
  • Bubble Sort Routine
    Sorts numbers into ascending order.
  • Build Additional RAM
    How to upgrade the ZX80 to 8K RAM.
  • Buying By Mail: Know Your Rights
    Federal Trade Commission rules give you some rights when you order by mail.
  • Byte-Back M-64 Memory Expansion
    Review of the RAM pack.
  • Byte-Back Modem Shipments Delayed
    Byte-Back will ship no modems for 4-6 weeks.
  • Byteing Deeper Into Your Timex/Sinclair 1000
    Review of the book by Mark Harrison.
  • Bytesavers Hint
    If you are using a PRINT after a line number simply to add an empty line, use two commas instead.
  • CAI Instrument's Widget Board
    Most of us are pretty tired of waiting up to a year for delivery and then getting equipment and manuals with obvious mistakes. Couple that with an unresponsive manufacturer and you get frustrated customers. Because of problems detailed below, SYNTAX recommends that you delay purchasing the Widget until CAI Instruments offers correct, complete, and consistent
  • CAI Offers Computer Network Package
    CAI now offers a network package including Lexicon 11 modem, ASCII modem and cable.
  • CAI Peripherals Update
    CAI Instruments will ship their first Widgets the week of Sept. 21.
  • CAI Printer Update
    CAI Instruments will offer software components to make their Widget printer compatible with both 4K and 8K ROMs.
  • CAI Ships Widgets
    At press time, CAI’s Bob Swann confirmed reader reports- 100’s of Widgets shipped. Expect printers in 2 wks, tape drives in 4. Widgets chew up the top 4K of memory – 2 for tape and 2 for printer.
  • CAI Update
    CAI Instruments is almost ready with their Widget series peripherals for ZX80s and MicroAces.
  • Cantilever Beam Calculation
    This program calculates the deflection of a cantilevered beam loaded to maximum safe load at the free end.
  • Cardioid Plot
    Plots a heart-shaped curve.
  • Cash Register
    Lets your ZX/TS act like a cash register record keeper for a small retail store.
  • Cassette Eavesdropper
    Use this simple circuit to listen to your programs as they save and load or to search for programs on tape without pulling the earphone cord and adjusting the volume control each time.
  • Cassette Label Maker
    Design a three-line label on the screen with all characters available, then just hit “C” to copy as many labels as needed on the printer.
  • Centronics Printer I/F
    This interface plugs into the back of the TS2068 and provides a cable with a standard Centronics parallel printer connector.
  • Changes Ahead for Syncware News
    Fred Nachbaur’s publication will continue on to volume 2, but shift locations, upgrade its format, take on additional personnel, publish quarterly instead of bi-monthly, and keep its editorial policies.
  • Changes to Amazing Active Display
    John Sampson of College Point, NY, called in response to the letter in the Oct. 81 issue about The Amazing Active Display.
  • Changes to September Budget Program
    User interface changes to the program.
  • Changes to Super ZX80 Invasion
    Add new levels of difficulty.
  • Character Set Rotation
    This machine code routine allows you to rotate the character set in any of four directions, with or without mirror imaging it.
  • Chart Your Biorhythms
    Program for 8K ROM machines graphically displays your emotional, intellectual and physical cycles.
  • Chase
    Avoid the snake by moving tokens with 4 cursor control keys. Chase ends and prints your score when the snake catches you or you accumulate 100 points.
  • Cheap Power
    Surplus power supplies can double a ZX/TS’s load capabilities.
  • Check Your Voltage
    Check cassette voltage level if you experience problems loading.
  • Check-B
    Review of a menu-driven checkbook balancing program.
  • Checkers for Two
    Play this game just like board checkers.
  • Chest of Classics by Lamo-Lem
    Review of the programs from Lamo-Lem.
  • Clarification
    Winky Board manufacturer Gerry Russell says the SAVE filter feature should be used only if high frequency RAM pack noise prevents SAVEing.
  • Clarification of Bytes Remaining
    Ian Logan’s 8K Bytes Remaining program, Dec. 81, uses function keywords for all input except E, the numbers, and the punctuation. Thus after 1 REM type the letter E, the numeral 0, the function RND, the function LN, the function arcosine, a colon, and so on. The only space you type in is 1 after
  • Color Plot
    Use this program for drawing lines or circles anywhere on the screen. If you use a joystick, you can move, change color, and draw circles all at once.
  • Color TS2000, 16K TS1500, Modem This Summer
    Timex reports it will begin sales this August of TS2000s with 16K or 48K RAM, color/sound capabilities and bank-switching. The 16K version will sell for $149.95; the 48K for $199.95, says Timex. Both versions contain 24K ROM, including 8K ROM for cartridge capabilities and bank-switching. With bank-switching the computer can potentially use up to 256
  • Colorsort
    Basic and machine language programs to demonstrate sorting speeds.
  • Comparative ROM Atlas: From ZX Spectrum to 2068
    To convert SPECTRUM software to the 2068, you need the location and function of ROM routines in each. You can buy the annotated ROM disassembly from Melbourne House or Zebra Systems. Timex sells the 2068 technical manual. Our cross-index links the two ROMs.
  • Comparison Between The Sinclair ZX80 and The TRS-80 Color Computer
    Table comparing the various hardware and programming language features.
  • Comparison Between the Sinclair ZX80 and the TRS-80 Pocket Computer
  • Compatibility of Machines
    Compatibility of hardware with the TS1500 and TS2068.
  • Compu-Calendar
    This three-part program returns correct day name, changes Gregorian dates to corresponding Julian day numbers, and computes total days between any two dates from Jan. 1 AD to Feb. 2300.
  • Computer Keyboards Professional Keyboard Kit and Enclosure for ZX81
    Review of Gladstone’s keyboard and enclosure.
  • Computer Models
    Programming tutorial on calculating buinsess models wide variety of cases.
  • Computer Number Systems
    Introduction to binary with programs to convert from decimal to binary and binary to decimal.
  • Computer Number Systems II
    Examines hexadecimal system.
  • Computer Number Systems III
    Article looks at octal numbers.
  • Computers and the Aged
    Activities, Adaptation & Aging will publish “computer technology & the aged: implications & applications for activity programs.”
  • Computers for Kids -- Sinclair ZX81 Edition
    Review of the Creative Computing Press book.
  • Concatenating Machine Code
    How to combine two machine language routines for use in a single program.
  • Continuous Display Utility
    Want a flicker-free screen? JRS Software now offers software for continuous display.
  • Converting Decimals to Floating Point Binary
    Explains how positive integers are converted to Sinclair’s internal floating point.
  • Copy Katt
    Review of software copying program.
  • Cosine Functions on 4K ROM
  • Crash Course in Microcomputers
    Review of the book by Louis Frenzel.
  • Crunchers -- 21 Simple Games for the Timex/Sinclair 1000
    New Timex Sinclair owners will find the games fun and original and also acquire programming skills while working through Crunchers.
  • Crypto
    This sophisticated coder and decoder runs in only 2K. Use it for fun as a stand-alone program, or create a subroutine to make your datafiles unintelligible without the keyword.
  • Cryptoquote -- Use Your ZX80 to Help You Solve Substitution Ciphers
    “Cryptoquote” is a program for infinitely patient or just masochistic puzzle-solvers. It works just like cryptoquotes in newspapers — you substitute letters for letters to decode the babble into a quotation. Your ZX80 will help you, though, by displaying the frequency distribution of letters in your quotation.
  • Curing 16K RAM Random Dumping
    Suggestions for eliminating RAM pack wobble.
  • D-B-H Conversion
    Convert decimal, binary and hexadecimal numbers easily with this well prompted utility.
  • Data Dubber
    The Peripheral People offer a device to help you LOAD and SAVE cleanly.
  • Data File Format
    Here’s a program for 2K MicroAces that allows you to create indexed files on tape.
  • Datasave - Files Without Programs
    DATASAVE allows you to save a selected portion of memory to tape and then load it back again to any part of memory. Loading code with DATASAVE does not (of necessity) write over the program that you are running, so a program can load data from tape, manipulate it, and then save it back to
  • Dear Editor
    Complaints over proposed magazine price increase; altering Westridge modem software; retain memory contents after crash; bugs in JRC assembler/compiler.
  • Dear Editor
    Using Firstloader; response to review of HOT Z-2068; information about Timex Sinclair User.
  • Dear Editor
    Cassette recorders; speed with 16K; jumping to program lines quickly; handling negative numbers; wirewrap edge connectors; replacing cassette jacks; techniques for saving memory variable space.
  • Dear Editor
    ZX-Microfair in London; Microace 8K ROM has bugs; Microace regulator; floating point in 8K ROM.
  • Dear Editor
    How to make a program unlistable; program for linear regression; painting heatsinks; FORTH; problems with 8K ROM/keyboard upgrade for ZX80; MicroAce flicker-free kit; large keyboard; edge connector cleaner.
  • Dear Editor
    MicroAce 8K ROM and flicker-free video upgrade board. ZX81 glitches. RAM pack wobble.
  • Dear Editor
    Sinclair discontinues tech support. Inventory control program sought. Connect full size keyboard to ZX81. Improving ZX80 cooling.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about languages other than BASIC; Syntactic Sum; stereo cassette players; MicroAce kit; hardware changes voiding warranty; constructing characters that are smaller.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters with improvements programs; corrections; math error in 8K ROM; converting 4K ROM programs to 8K ROM; ZX80 users online.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about new 8K ROM features; keyboard problems; video blanking; building additional RAM; interfacing to real world; improvements to bar graphics program; printing statements.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about adapting the ZX80 to work worldwide; beginner questions about programming; request for 8K ROM listing; recorders.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about interference; saving bytes; additional RAM; static electricity; MicroAce issues.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about Syntactic Sum; contact info for vendors; schematics; source of 8K ROMs.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about issues assembling MicroAce; tv/cassette player placement; adapting programs; reverse video; cassette eavesdropper; amateur radio operators.
  • Dear Editor
    Question about back switching on the 2068; Firstloader problems; dedicated supporters.
  • Dear Editor
    Everyone knows that Sinclair Timex computers are dead now that Timex quit, right? Well, I’m always the last to get the word, darn it! In May, I completed my “Super JO1000”, a TS1000 upgraded to full color, 124K system with EPROM programming, EPROM read, and Centronics parallel printer interface. (“JO” stands for John Oliger, who
  • Dear Editor
    Comments on Timex leaving market; question about 64 column mode; thermal paper for the 2040; questions about various programs.
  • Dear Editor
    Comments about Timex leaving market; request for documentation/manuals.
  • Dear Editor
    TS2068 version of Dave Wood’s High Line Numbers; maintaining the ZX81; questions about TS2040, TS2068 and TS1500.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters asking about Canadian suppliers; problems entering programs; interference on TVs; tape recorders.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about inverting video signal; TAB subroutine; contacting other owners; machine language programming.
  • Dear Editor
    Problems with vendors; VU-CALC with larger memory units; expanding memory space; memory problems with a 2040 printer; monitor problems with 2068.
  • Dear Editor
    Query for business software; how are programs locked; custom keycaps.
  • Dear Editor
    Battery-backed power; errors in printing floating point numbers; using VU-File with Qsave; Sinclair microdrive; overload the TS1000 stack with a simple program; good service from a vendor; thanks to fellow reader; Byte-Back RAM unit.
  • Dear Editor
    HP 82954A thermal paper works with 2040; explain Syntactic Sum; transistor cross-reference; relocatable HOT Z from Sinware; DIY resolutions to various problems.
  • Dear Editor
    Custom keytops are available from MULE Electronics; high pitched whine from TV; beware of overvoltage conditions; use Atari 822 paper on TS2040; Memotech printers; Paul Hunter offers excellent service.
  • Dear Editor
    Problem with ZX printer listings in hot months; repair keyboard connection; using CAI devices with 64K RAM; solving loading problems; ZX81 ROM bugs.
  • Dear Editor
    Cleaning the ZX printer; secure the slot key in expansion devices; printing problems with joystick; avoid power supply related crashes; test tape head alignment.
  • Dear Editor
    User with ataxia seeks help; comments on Programmers Toolkit from Softsync; replacement transistors; repair traces on keyboard; technical information for 2068; problems loading.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about 2068; memory packs for 1000; keyboard problems; temperature problems.
  • Dear Editor
    Problems with computers, printers, software; replacement keyboard.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about magazine index; resistor values; ordering from England; errors in books; TV interference; bad connections; memory problems; replacement parts.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about 4K ROM; tape recorders; modifying the ZX80 cursor; TV interference.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about expanding the Sinclair; software available from Banta; 16K RAM pack; reverse video; Sinclair repair department; parts from Radio Shack.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about power supply ripple; keyboard labels; crashing; jack connections; where to get parts; saving programs.
  • Dear Editor
    Letters about tv/cassette recorder placement; crashes; static electricity; merging programs; suggestions for manufacturers; using extended RAM; tape head alignment; vendor complaints.
  • Dear Editor
    Drop of epoxy on keyboard as placeholder; problems saving and loading; solution to poor connector contact; learning BASIC.
  • Dear Editor
    Questions about the Spectrum; entering functions; upgrading a MicroAce; sound from the ZX81; RST 28; merging programs; diodes.
  • Dear Editor
    Question about noise during save; keyboard replacement; COBOL for ZX/TS; saving; internal RAM; overheating; loose connector problems.
  • Dear Editor
    Semantics about baud vs bits per second; keyboard conversions; solving heat build-up; Timex modem compatibility with ZX80; renumbering program; conversion to ASCII; install RAM pack inside ZX81; interface Selectric typewriter.
  • Dear Editor
    Alternative to flat ribbon cable for keyboard connection; question about how terminal programs work; connect video monitor; user pleased with Touch-A-Matic; computer crashes at end of load.
  • Dear Editor
    Keyboard audio tone; full-sized keyboard from Double H Electronics; detecting two keys at once; communicating via tape with someone in England; damaging keyboard leads; curing interference; RAM pack wobble; user-defined graphics on the ZX/TS.
  • Dear Sinclair Research
    It is with great displeasure that I am returning my Sinclair ZX80. Response from Nigel Searle.
  • DeathChase
    Review of the game, originally for the Spectrum and converted to the 2068.
  • Decimal to Floating Point Library
    Use built-in floating ROM routine to convert decimal number to floating point format.
  • Decimal-Hexadecimal Conversion Program
    Utility converts values in decimal (base 10) from 0-65535 to hexadecimal (base 16) equivalents.
  • Defective 8K ROMs
    Defective ROMs and notes about power converter in 16K RAM pack.
  • Defective Laserscan RAM Replacement Available
    Laserscan Electronics discovered that some of their early model 16K RAM packs, produced until mid-January 1983, are defective.
  • Defensive Awari
    Improvements to author’s program.
  • Defining Functions on the ZX/TS
    You sit down to type in a non-Sinclair BASIC program into your ZX/TS only to find in the listing a FN(A) statement. Should you forget about the rest of the program? No. We’ll simulate a defining functions feature. This versatile approach is actually better than other micros’ function defining feature.
  • Design
    Run this flashy program on a TV as a personalized store window ad.
  • Detecting Multiple Keys
    Detecting multiple keys on the TS1000.
  • Diagonal Lines
    You can make 45 degree angles with two nested FOR-NEXT loops.
  • Dice Roll
    This program turns your ZX80 into a totally fair dice roller.
  • Different Strokes
    Prestodigitizer, an 8-bit input graphics tablet available for several micros, will soon be ready for your ZX80.
  • Digital Clock
    This program operates as a digital clock, showing A.M. or P.M. and changing at 12:00.
  • DIM as Calculator Sum-to-Memory
    DIM arrays can function as a sum-to-memory system found in many calculators. More importantly, it acts as a counter function and can be used where FOR-NEXT loops will not work. Moving Billboard, this illustrates the counter function.
  • Direct Character Code Output
    Print ASCII characters through Memotech and AERCO Centronics interfaces and bypass the translation routines.
  • Direct Input Horizontal and Vertical Line Graphics
    Lets you draw lines by direct input and loops so you can draw until you run out of memory.
  • Disable Auto-List
    This routine tricks Sinclair’s auto-list mechanism into malfunctioning so new program lines do not appear on the screen.
  • Distance
    Computes the shortest distance and true bearing from any point on the earth’s surface to any other location.
  • Do or Die
    You are trapped in a Mayan maze-like tomb. A block pixel in the central chamber is the only escape route.
  • Draw A Picture Program
    Draw circles, diagonals and straight lines easily with this drawing program.
  • Drive to Run CP/M In the Works
    Kopak Creations and Aerco are working jointly on a ZX/TS disk drive to run CP/M (world’s most common disk-based microcomputer operating system.) Aerco says the drive will be available in 3 months.
  • Dueling Devices
    Problems related to incomplete I/O address decoding.
  • E-Z Key 60 Keyboard
    The keyboard is well designed, comfortable to use, is completely consistent with the style of ZX/TS computers and improves entry.
  • E-Z Loader Software Bug Fix
    Repair E-Z Loader with a few pokes.
  • Easier Loading for MC Utilities
    Load or enter the program your MC program will work on.
  • Easy Math
    Easy Math essentially turns your system into a calculator, with formulae storing ability and a 26 item user stack.
  • Edge Connectors Available
    Kopak Creations of New York now offers 46-pin edge connectors for ZX80/81s.
  • Editing Hints for Print Lines
    Technique for creating many lines with PRINT statements.
  • Education Workshop Series Expanded
    Technical Education Research Centers, Inc. workshops were designed for professional development for educators, emphasizing hands-on experience with micros including ZX/TS computers.
  • Educational Software Vendor
    Edson Electronics offers educational programs for ZX80/81.
  • Egg Timer
    This simple, practical software timer sets off an alarm to let you know when your egg boils, your game finishes or time’s up.
  • Emulator Boards Available
    Doug Dewey called to let us know that he’s making Spectrum Emulator Boards using 27128 chips.
  • Entrapment
    This game pits you against your computer.
  • EPROMS: What they are, what they do
    Description of the chips.
  • Equational And/Or
    Many users are confused about the logical use of AND and OR in the 8K ROM. Here is a touchstone (demonstration) program illustrates various uses of AND and OR.
  • Estimate Heating Costs
    Use these 3 programs to estimate heating costs for houses and other small buildings.
  • Etching Program
    Draws patterns by itself. It traces a continuous line, starting at the left-hand center edge of the screen, bouncing off the edges, and stopping only if the line leads into one corner.
  • Examining Machine Code
    Look at any address in memory, leave it alone or change its contents, and automatically go to the next address.
  • Exchanging Registers, Part 6
    In addition to the eight registers A,F,B,C,D,E,H and L covered in an earlier article, the Z80 (central processing unit in your ZX80/81) has a twin set of alternate registers.
  • Exclusive ZX/TS Exhibition
  • Excuse Me, That's Sir Clive
    Queen Elizabeth II of England knighted Clive Sinclair on June 11, honoring his accomplishments as inventor of the ZX/TS computer.
  • Expanding Existing 16K Programs
    If you upgraded to 48K RAM for your ZX81, you may think it simple to add a few program lines and enlarge the variable arrays in existing 16K RAM programs to utilize the increased memory capacity.
  • Experiments in Artificial Intelligence
    Review of the book by John Krutch.
  • Extended ZX80 Service Contracts
    Sinclair now offers extended service contracts to ZX80 owners. $25 per year will cover all parts and labor and return shipment of the unit.
  • EZUG Newsletter
    The Educational ZX80/1 Users’ Group (EZUG) publishes a newsletter each month for ZX80 users.
  • Faster Pseudorandom Numbers
    Sequentially PEEK from the 8K ROM’s machine language operating system (essentially a pseudorandom number table) from a randomly selected starting point to provide “random” numbers.
  • Fifteen Puzzle
    8K ROM version of game published in earlier issue.
  • Find Clean Tape on 8K
    Quickly find the unused section of tape for SAVEing 8K programs on multi-program tapes on any RAM size.
  • Firstloader -- From ZX/TS to 2068
    Syntax commissioned a custom program, written by David Ornstein, to convert your existing programs for the 2068 or 48K Spectrums. This program translates input bytes from ZX/TS tapes to an equal number of output bytes in your 2068 that you must edit, and then save. Codes & program control structures differ in the two designs,
  • Flashing Prompts Subroutine
  • For Syntax Readers Only
    Sinclair now offers used ZX80s for only $49.95. According to Nigel Searle of Sinclair, most of these machines were sold in England as kits and assembled incorrectly.
  • Frequency Histogram
    Program tests how random the ZX80/MicroAce’s random number generator really is.
  • Frogger
    Frogger helps Timex step up to the big time arcade with fast action, good medium resolution graphics and a challenge tough to beat.
  • From Other Basics - VAL and LEN
    ZX80 Basic substitutions for LEN and VAL functions.
  • From Sinclair Research
    Sinclair ZX80 and Syntax ZX80 announcement.
  • Full Annotated 4K ROM Listing
    Sinclair’s complete 4K ROM listing with original designer’s annotations will be available from SYNTAX by August.
  • Future History: 2068
    Lights of the City updated for the 2068.
  • G Russell Developing New ZX/TS Products
    Bill Russell tells SYNTAX he’s creating some new products for ZX/TS machines as well as for the 2068.
  • Game Changer Interface
    This unit cross-connects your Atari 2600 VCS and TS1000, allowing either to take control of whole blocks of shared memory. That “shared” memory includes the ROM inside the Atari game cartridge, and shadow copies of that ROM in the TS1000 RAM.
  • Games for Your Timex/Sinclair 2000
    Games published include very clean listings of working programs. I was struck by the originality of the games presented. Even those with the usual game plans have unique twists and amusing graphics.
  • Get Your System Together
    Build a enclosure for your computer to keep everything organized.
  • Getting Acquainted with Your ZX81
    This British book is a good way to move beyond the ZX81 manual if you’re new to computers.
  • Gladstone Electronics Announces New Products
    ZXFORTH, Fast Load program, Speech Pack.
  • Golf Partner
    Stores your golf scores and calculates your average and handicap. The program holds information for 100 rounds of golf, and calculates the statistics after your first ten entries.
  • Goodbye, SQ
    SQ and SYNTAX staffers regretfully announce that SYNTAX QUARTERLY magazine has ceased publication, due to financial difficulties.
  • Gradebook for Teachers
    Program helps teachers average grades at the end of the grading period.
  • Grading Program
    Program includes 37 student names—enough to satisfy most classroom situations.
  • Graphic Pointer
    Use this machine code routine to quickly specify the PLOT position on the 2068 screen.
  • Graphics: A to Z
    Review of the book by Paul Bingham and Rick Goulian. Starts with BASIC PRINT statement graphics and goes to machine code graphic subroutines.
  • Green and Black and Read All Over
    Connecting the ZX81 to a monitor.
  • Grimm's Fairy Trails
    Review of Timex’s response to PACMAN. The maze-pursuit game has 6 levels of play, from crawl to very fast.
  • Hall of the Fractal Hackers
    Based on the Sep.84 Scientific American computer software issue, the first of these programs creates fractal patterns using the method described on page 156.
  • Hangman
    ZX80 version of the 2 person spelling game, Hangman.
  • Hardware Hint - TS2040
    Paper for the Radio Shack 40-column thermal printer works on the TS2040. Both are made by Alphacom.
  • Hardware Hint - TS2068
    Wire a 9v power supply to the printer (do not connect to edge connector) to use the ZX Printer with the 2068.
  • Hardware Hint - ZX-99
    10 ohm resistor may prevent internal relay from sticking closed.
  • Hardware Hints
    Potential solution to overheating; labeling keys on big keyboards.
  • Hardware Hints
    Techniques for preventing overheating, memory loss.
  • Hardware Notes
    Advice on DIP headers; edge connectors; video monitors; reset switch; cassette monitoring.
  • Hardware Preview: RD8100 System
    RD8100 motherboards and modules are building blocks that plug onto your computer or together to create instant systems.
  • Hardware Project
    This circuit will simplify loading and saving programs by eliminating ground loop noise without the need to pull out the earphone plug during saving and the microphone plug during loading.
  • Hardware Report
    Potential solution to problems with LOAD.
  • Hardware Review: Buffered Buss/Development Board "Expansion Board"
    Computer Continuum’s buffered expansion board kit is a buffered backplane, providing four 44-pin edge card connectors with the same pinout as Sinclair’s except the slot.
  • Hardware Review: Joystick Adaptor
    Zebra’s plug-in joystick adaptor, a small module, lets you attach an Atari-style joystick to your ZX/TS.
  • Hardware Review: The Parrot, Voice Synthesis Module
    The Parrot, produces 64 separate allophones. R.I.S.T. used Voicetech’s general purpose speech development kit combined with chips and software to produce a cost effective ZX/TS speech unit.
  • Hardware Tip: Keyboard Conversion
    Use a DIP socket to create connectors for a keyboard conversion.
  • Headscan
    Program to read and reveal the information from the 17-byte header of a program.
  • Hidden REMs
    Use this trick to hide information in your REM statements.
  • High Line Numbers
    Poke to create line numbers above 9999.
  • Hog Heaven - ROM Entry Points
    Complete list of global subroutine calls for the 4K ROM’s eigh software modules.
  • Home Energy Analysis
    Takes into account the effectiveness of both heating and cooling systems and other factors affecting energy usage in your home.
  • HOT Z-2068
    Ray Kingsley has brought out one of the most powerful machine-code monitors I have ever seen. Everyone planning to write machine code routines on the 2068 owes it to himself to buy a copy of this package.
  • House Rules at the Last Chance
    Comments about buying products in wake of Timex departure.
  • How Many Bytes to the Line?
    Subroutine determines the exact number of bytes used for each line of program instruction as well as an entire program.
  • How to Buy a Timex Computer
    “We do not have a primary plan to sell computers by mail. The 800-24-TIMEX number provides referrals to stores,” said Timex VP Dan Ross.
  • How to Wire a Big Keyboard
    Although the ZX80 has many fine features, some people complain about the small pads of the touch keyboard that comes with it. But this is not a serious problem. The ZX80 uses a matrixed keyboard, so you can easily add a bigger, parallel keyboard.
  • Ian Logan Wins First Annual Rosetta Stone
  • IC Inventory
    This program, written for the CD4000 series of ICs and using the 4K ZX80 ROM and at least 2K RAM, can be adapted for any series of things following consecutive numbers.
  • Improved 4K Sine Calculation
    Use these lines in 4K programs requiring sines between 0 and 90 degrees.
  • Improving Display
    One problem with creating graphic displays on the ZX80 is users’ inability to interact with display. This program allows you to manipulate a cursor on 14 screen lines and to insert characters where desired.
  • In and Out of Machine Language
    When you use machine language programs, you have no keys to press directly. So we need to tell the machine to RUN a machine language program, and to tell it to STOP.
  • Income Tax
    Program to help prepare a tax return.
  • Increment, Decrement For-To's
    Use LET to increment or decrement loops in 4K BASIC.
  • Input Port
    Capture data through a port, place it into a CPU register.
  • Integer BASIC Compiler
    If you have lots of experience programming in languages that don’t tell you about errors, JRC has a BASIC compiler that you may be able to use.
  • Interface to the Real World
    Add an 8-bit latch to the ZX80 or MicroAce, mapped to 3000H (12288). Includes schematic.
  • Intro to Machine Language
    Start of series on machine language programming for beginners.
  • Inventory
    Program helps you keep track of household or business items.
  • Inverse Big Characters
    To print 8x size characters in reverse video, change these lines from Big Characters (Dec. 80).
  • Inverse Cryptology
    Challenging code breaking game for 2 uses 4K ROM and 1K RAM.
  • Is Timestar a Dark Star
  • JK Audio Model JK-310 I/O Board with Real Time Clock
    JK-310 is ideal for your applications and projects that require a real-time clock. JK-310 uses an OKI MSM5832 real-time clock chip.
  • K-Power to Fulfill TSU Subs
    Subscribers to ECC’s ill-fated new venture into North America, Timex-Sinclair User, should have received postcards by now, offering K-Power to complete their subscriptions.
  • Kaleidoscope
    I resorted to machine code in an effort to write a fast program to display a kaleidoscope pattern on the ZX/TS screen. The resulting images may be viewed on the screen and printed out at will.
  • Key Support Operations Will Stay
    Announcements of support from SoftSync, Byte-Back, Microsync Services, Thomas B. Woods, Banta Software, Kopak. Timex will honor warranties.
  • Key-finder Card
    Some things turn out more useful than you would at first think – this card is one of them. When I first got it, I stuck it on the 2068 test setup—what harm could it do? But I shift computers all day using the entire Sinclair family plus Osbornes and TRS-80’s. I save a few
  • Keyboard Beeper
    Review of Burnett Electronics’ keyboard beeper.
  • Keyboard Scanning
    Tutorial on reading the TS1000/TS2068 keyboard directly.
  • Know Your Gas Hogs
    Use your ZX80 to compare fuel economies and estimate total gas expenditures.
  • KOPAK Creations Opens Retail Store
    Retail location was at 119 Peter St., Union City, NJ.
  • KOPAK Introduces New Keyboard
    Kopak Creations’ new keyboard, ready in 15 weeks, plugs into internal ZX/TS keyboard connector.
  • Landing a LEM on the Moon
    This ZX80 version sets a LEM 2,530 meters above the moon with only 300 liters of fuel. You must land without crashing or running out of fuel.
  • Late News
    Laserscan wants to liquidate their limited 16K RAM kit.
  • Learning Timex/Sinclair Basic
    Review of the book by David Lien.
  • Letter From The Editor
  • Letter Recognition Train
    Children learning to read must first master skills of letter recognition and discrimination. This simple program teaches that skill, with little help from adults
  • LI Group Loads and Modifies TT
    The Jun. 84 issue of, the monthly newsletter of the Long Island Sinclair Timex Group, contains full instructions for converting the Spectrum program Transylvanian Towers to operate on the 2068.
  • Life Expectancy
    Program calculates your life expectancy based on data you input on habits and family history.
  • Light Control Interface
    Interface Technology will adapt “The Microcommander” to the Sinclair ZX80.
  • Lights of the City
    This program uses the 8K ROM’s graphics and animation capabilities to generate an ever-changing video pattern like a growing city.
  • Line Renumbering
    Two approaches to renumbering program lines, one in Basic, the other in machine code.
  • Line Renumbering
    This program renumbers the line numbers in any other program in memory.
  • Lines
    Program that produces a random display of fans of color.
  • Linesum
    Locating errors made in typing from printed listings is easy when they include a checksum for every statement, and you have Linesum loaded.
  • LJH's Keyboard
    Ad says “wired keyboard hooks up in minutes,” but this project may take beginners 1-2 hours.
  • Loading Hexadecimal Listings
    This program converts the hex and stores it into a space explicitly for it.
  • Loading One ZX/TS from Another
    Send programs from one computer to another directly by wire from the sender’s monitor driver to the receiver’s ear jack.
  • Loading Problems with ZX81 Kits
    If you have loading problems with a kit ZX81, see if you cracked C10 during assembly. Some machines LOAD fine with 1 (or 2)K internal memory, but not with 16K.
  • Loading with Syntactic Sum
    How to use the program.
  • Loan Amortization Revisited
  • Loan Amortization Schedule
    Program gives you monthly payments and loan amortization information.
  • Logic Chip Failure Symptoms
    Reader deduced that his ZX81 logic chip (ICl) had failed from the keyboard line and diode matrix.
  • London Microfair Show Guides Available Again
    Limited supply of show guides available.
  • Look Angles
    Program to calculate look angles (azimuth, elevation and heading) for satellite dish antennas.
  • LPRINT Bug Bypass for TS2040
    Method to avoid the printing bug in the TS2040.
  • M-16 Memory Module
    Review of the RAM pack.
  • Machine Code -- CP Branching Tests
    CPs are 1-3 byte codes that compare two numbers. More exactly, they subtract the number you are looking for from what has been loaded into the accumulator.
  • Machine Code Graphics Demo
    Program provides an unusual display of machine code (MC) graphics. It alters the I register, which contains the high order address of the graphics table.
  • Machine Code Monitor
    Utility program enables you to edit and execute hex Z80 machine code.
  • Machine Code Print Routine
    Machine language (ML) permits you to print characters anywhere on the screen. Harness the ZX80’s own print routine with RST 0010.
  • Machine Code Programming - Multiplication and Division
    Multiplication and division require more thought and attention to detail.
  • Machine Code Programming -- Understanding the Stack
    Often when writing machine code (MC) programs, it’s useful to keep the MC above RAMTOP. But few people understand how to move RAMTOP and the Z80’s stack pointer from within MC.
  • Machine Code Programming: #9, Testing Bits for Branching
    You can test any bit in any address simply by loading a register and choosing the right instruction code.
  • Machine Code Screen Fill
    Simple 16-byte machine code program fills the screen with any character.
  • Machine Compatibility
    A beginner wrote to ask: All of the following computers have the designation 80 — ZX80, Z80, Z80A, TRS-80. Are programs or software usable between each of these computers? Also there is a Z80 Softcard to apply Z80 programs to the Apple II. Is it reversible?
  • Machine Language Programming - Logical Functions
    Differences between 4K and 8K ROMs can be overcome with machine language.
  • Machine Language Programming Made Simple for Your Sinclair ZX80 and ZX81
  • Macronics Announces Floppy Disk Interface
    Run a 5 1/4″ disk drive with your ZX/TS and Macronic’s new FIZ 1.1 interface. Interface plugs into rear edge connector with an expansion bus.
  • Maggie Bruzelius Leaves Sinclair
    Facing an offer too good to refuse, Maggie became Director of Marketing for Alpha Software, one of the few growing software houses.
  • Magic Square
    Short program to generate magic squares for any number 35-99.
  • Mail Order Big Keyboard
    Keyboard available from Southern California Optical.
  • Make-Do Connectors
    At SYNTAX we use a Radio Shack connector. Their solderless edge-card, 40-pin connector (#276-1558) usually picks up all the contacts we need. We also use 40- conductor, insulation displacement, ribbon cable and mount the connector with a metal-jawed vise.
  • Manipulating Strings
    Routines broaden your ability to use strings in interesting ways.
  • Mastering Machine code on Your ZX81
    Review of the book by Toni Baker.
  • Mastermind
    Number guessing game.
  • Math
    Use Math to introduce your children to the ZX/TS and give them experience with basic skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
  • Math Function Execution Time
    User-tested timing of math functions.
  • Matrix Drawing
    Draws characters on a 13×20 matrix.
  • Maximize Display File for MC
    Poke RAMTOP to create a full display file.
  • Maze Options
    Otis Imboden’s 2-line Maze-O-Graphics inspired several readers. Here are their 4K ROM maze improvements , offering different methods.
  • Mazo-O-Graphix
    Short program to create a maze.
  • Mazogs
    Review of the game from Softsync.
  • MC Inkey$ Subroutine
    Machine code routine returns the CODE value of the key pressed to your BASIC program.
  • MC Programming #11: Storing MC Subroutines in REM
    While you can store machine code subroutines anywhere in your BASIC program, the best place is 1 REM (& 2 REM, if you have two subroutines) .
  • MC Programming #12: Calling and Returning
    Tutorial on machine language programming.
  • MC Programming #9: Jumping Around
    Most of the machine code subroutines held in REM will be be short around 100 instructions and data. Consequently, you won’t need the “JP nn” instruction.
  • MD-1 Direct-Connect Modem and RS-232 Port
    Review of Byte-Back’s modem.
  • MD-2 Modem
    Review of the Byte-Back modem for the TS1000.
  • Memory Decoding Above 16K
    Sinclair made the ZX81 RAM easy to decode up to 16K, but you may want to add memory beyond this point. To add more than 16K memory to your ZX80/81, you must do more than just: /A13 AND /A14 AND /A15 = /ROM CS. You’ll also need to account for the behavior of the display
  • Memory Tester
    MEMTST writes all zeroes into a byte, confirms that all bits equal zero by reading the byte, writes all ones in the byte, confirms that bits are all ones by re-reading the byte, then moves to the next byte.
  • Memory Window
    Display 16 consecutive bytes of memory in hex, decimal and character format.
  • Memotech 32K-Timex Incompatibility Reported
    Readers report their Memotech 32K RAMs do not work with TS2040 printers. Memotech knows about this problem and sent a TS2040 to its British office for testing.
  • Memotech 64K Memopak
    The Memopak is undoubtedly the ultimate memory expansion for the Sinclair. Try DIM A(9500)!
  • Memotech Announces New Computer
    Memotech Corp. has announced a new computer which will reach stores in October. The 16-color Z-80 based unit, known as the MTX 512, holds 80K RAM, uses CP/M, Apple, IBM and Memotech’s own software,
  • Memotech, Printer Incompatibility Solved
    Memotech reports the cause of Memopak/TS2040 printer incompatibility—3 unneeded printer capacitors (C4-C6).
  • Memotext Specifics
    User’s notes on the program.
  • Memotext Word Processor
    Review of Memotech’s word processor.
  • Merry Christmas
    Display a Christmas message.
  • MicroAce 8K ROM Replacements from Sinclair
    If you bought MicroAce’s defective 8K ROM, send it to Sinclair Research with $10. They’ll send back a good 8K ROM.
  • Microace interface to MM57109 calculator chip
    R.B. Turner plans to interface his 4K/2K MicroAce to the MM57109 programmable calculator chip to provide many scientific calculations.
  • MicroAce Out of Business in US
    “MicroAce will cease trading in the US” in December, Kevin Hawkins of MicroAce just announced. No legal action forces the withdrawal, he said. MicroAce cannot compete with Sinclair’s ZX81. CompShop, the parent company, continues to do business in the UK.
  • MicroAce to Discontinue Kits
    MicroAce is phasing out its computer kits. According to Bill Clark of MicroAce, Sinclair didn’t renew MicroAce’s license. The company also scrapped plans for a kit using larger ROM. “We can’t compete with the ZX81 in price,” Clark said. Other projects continue, however. MicroAce plans upgrade kits for machines, and video boards are in production.
  • MicroAce-ZX80 Component Equivalence
    Chart showing part numbers and designations between the two computers.
  • Microcommander Interface
    Interface Technology has resumed plans to adapt the TRS-80 Microcommander to the ZX80. The device gives the computer direct control of up to 256 lights and appliances.
  • Microperipheral Abandons Modem
    Gave up plans to produce ZX80 modems because they had to add many hardware features not in the ZX80. Modem would have cost more than the original computer.
  • Microsync Speaks
    Interview with Bob Allen, service manager with Microsync.
  • ML Scroll Routine
    In 1K ZX80s, large programs easily overfill the 24 available screen lines. This machine language routine deletes the top line from the screen so you can add lines to the bottom.
  • Mod to Use Hunter RAM with > 32K
    Hunter boards require a modification to work on systems with more than 32K RAM.
  • Modem Change Improves Temp Performance
    SYNTAX had heard that 2050 MODEMS stopped at high temperatures, but the manufacturer says this problem no longer exists. Westridge, the maker, points out that the failures at 160F ambient were above the rated range anyway.
  • Modifying Hex Monitor for 4K
    Hex Monitor (May 81) stores ML programs without shielding them from BASIC. These changes load ML to reserved space.
  • Money Talks; Timex Listens
    Timex withdrew from retail sales of home computers and will employ their resource in other product lines.
  • Monsters
    Avoid four monsters (represented by Xs). You must go through a randomly generated maze, get to the other side and land on a black bar without being caught by a monster.
  • Monthly Calendar
    Displays a calendar for any month in any particular year.
  • Monthly Income Graph
    Creates a monthly income graph for a year. It lets you see which months your income rises and which months it falls.
  • More Hardware Hints
    Polish the board edge contacts for the RAM almost to bare copper. Otherwise grit gets in the solder and causes intermittent contact.
  • Moving Billboard
    This program continuously scrolls up to 23 (and more) lines of characters. Do not print more than 32 characters in any PRINT instruction, such as line 150, or the scrolling will fail.
  • MULTIFILE -- A Data Storage System
    Review of the program available from Gladstone Electronics.
  • Multiple Regression Analysis
    Review of the program from Programmers at Large.
  • Multiplication Exercise
    This program asks for the multiplier (any number up to 3276) and then presents 5 problems, randomly choosing a number from 1 to 10. You get two tries to answer correctly. After the second try, the machine gives you the right answer with the next problem. At the end, it displays the number correct and
  • Multipurpose Memory Expansion
    SABRE Systems has developed a multipurpose memory expansion board to use in a variety of RAM/EPROM combinations.
  • Music Library
    Music Library provides database management program with a convenient format for organizing your music collection.
  • National TS User's Network to Form
    Don Barnard of TSS is forming a new club.
  • Need fast ZX80/ZX81 service?
    Service firm repaired partially-assembled ZX81.
  • Network Interface for Spectrum
    Sinclair Research announces the ZX Interface I, enabling 64-machine, 100 Kbaud local area networking and modem transmission.
  • New 8K ROM Features
    Updated list of the redesigned 8K ROM features not available on the 4K ROM and a brief explanation of their functions.
  • New 8K ROM Plus Printer
    Sinclair is revamping the ROM. The new chip will support the low cost printer Sinclair plans to introduce next year.
  • New 8K ROM Potpourri
    Sinclair’s first 8K ROM had a few bugs; list of changes to the 8K ROM map.
  • New 8K ROM Routine Addresses
    Here are the starting addresses for routines in the corrected 8K ROM. All addresses are hex.
  • New Features on TS2000, TS1500
    Advance publicity photos from Timex show some interesting features of the new TS2000 and TS1500.
  • New Magazine
    Announcement of Creative Computing’s SYNC magazine.
  • New Modem
    MicroPeripheral Corp. will introduce a modem for ZX80 and MicroAce machines by 1 January 1981, enabling you to connect to other computers by telephone.
  • New Prices from CAI
    CAI Instruments announced new prices for their ZX peripherals.
  • New Product Announcement (Syntax v3 n6)
    ZX FORTH, battery back-up units.
  • New Product Announcements (Syntax v3 n5)
    Darkstar from F/22 Press for photographers; products from RKL Systems, Memotech.
  • New Product Updates
    Updates on the 8K ROM; printer.
  • New Product Updates
    Updates from Sinclair on 16K RAM units; MicroPeripherals on its modem and CAI.
  • New Product Updates (Syntax v2 n1)
    Prestodigitizer requires 8K ROM; Cognivox requires 16K RAM; MicroPeripheral modem held up.
  • New Product Updates (Syntax v2 n2)
    CAI is accepting orders for their products.
  • New Products (Syntax v3 n11)
    New products from R.S. Panwar, Wisconsinc Electronics, Sinware, P. Pollack, Nanos.
  • New Products and Services
    AFR Software announces ZX-Calc; Raedata announces Micro-ROOTs, a journal for people interested in genealogy.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v3 n10)
    New products from Tom Woods, Hunter, Miller-Zamis, International Publishing and Software, King Software, Hamrich International, P. Pollak, E-Z Key.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v3 n12)
    New products from Matthew Zenkar, G. Russell Electronics, MicroSync Services, Stephen Adams, E. Alvarez, Norris Electronics, Gladstone, Kopak, M.C. Hoffman, Stuart Software, Dale Lipinksi, TSG Enterprises, QZX Newsletter, Intercomputer, Lamo-Lem, JACYN Electronics.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v3 n9)
    New products from f/22 Press, NIM Electronics, Stuart Software, Norris Electronics, G. Russell Electronics, Lyon Ware, Fulcrum Products, Martin Irons.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n1)
    New products from KSOFT, D. Lipinksi, ZX Software Team, M.C. Hoffman, Run-it Software Club, Startext, Expense Cutters Products, Computa-Dek, Bytesize Computer Products, Computer Continuum, Martin Irons, Rose Aircraft. Charles Durang will not publish ZX Newsletter, focus on books instead.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n10)
    New products from UAS, John Carson, A. Rodriguez, Williamware, ROMPAK, Intercomputer, Micro-Load, Soft Magic Corp., Larimar Inc., Robotec, Simulsion.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n11)
    New products from Hawg Wild, Z-West, 2-Bit Software, Phoenix Enterprises, Warren Imports Group, Russell Brewer, Goldwater Manufacturing, John Carson, Labsoft, Occam Research, Golden Stair, E. H. Enterprises.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n12)
    New products from TAG Software, Gesang Associates, Intercomputer, ACE Software, Thomas B. Woods, Delphic Enterprises, Sinware, E. Arthur Brown, Softsync, Macshak Software.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n2)
    New products from Expense Cutters Products, JPR Software, Biocal, Memotech, R.S. Panwar, Wisconsinc Electronics, Calliope Software, Practical Computer Products, Melear Marketing, SofTek, RAMSTRAP, Syncware,f/22 Press, Hunter, Friendly Computer, M.C. Hoffman, Integrated Data Systems, Softsync.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n3)
    New products from Compuwiz, R.I.S.T., Banta, Software Unlimited, Z-West, Synergistic, Sinware, Spectra Computer Products.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n4)
    New products from Artisan Electronics, Spectra Computer Products, Jim Giddings, L. Harmon, Cosmonics, Memotech, Hawg Wild, Electronic Specialists, Sinware, Cottage Technology, Advanced Interface Designs, Software Unlimited.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n5)
    New products from Timex, J.V. Kane, Silicon Valley North, ZX-Panding, Computer Engineering Services, M-Ware, W.D. Maples, Kaltek Calculator Technology, J.J. Castillos, Florida Creations, Stuart Software, Laserscan Electronics, International Publishing & Software, 2-Bit Software, LINC.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n6)
    New products from Daydesign, Compuwiz, G. Russell Electronics, SofTec, DJM Software, Compucraft, DK’tronics, Timeworks, Toptronics, Florida Creations, ZX/TS Software Exchange Club, Busyness, SyncWare, Memotech, Stuart Software.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n7)
    New products from Tom Woods, Kopak, L. Harmon, f/22 Press, 2-Bit Software, Barlog Software, Celestial Software, SyncMaster, CRC Software, Timeworks, K.D.V.H.E. Publishers, Starburst Software, Intercomputer, Hawg Wild, D. Lipinski Software, Polymath, Russell Brewer, Bob Fingerle.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n8)
    New products from Magic World Software, Hawg Wild, Bob Fingerle, Gladstone, CompuTech, Pyramid Software, Ultimate Blackwood, SyncWare News, H. R. Brady, Timeware, Biocal, Robotec.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v4 n9)
    New products from Matthew Zenkar, SyncMaster, John Carson, I.M.S. Enterprises, Banta Software, ZX-Panding, Syber Inc., KSOFT, E-Z Key.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n1)
    New books from Prentice-Hall, Hayden; SRS Speech Recognition System from G. Russell Electronics; DO-CALC; Software from Banta Software; RAMPAGER from Robotec.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n10)
    Cryptic Gold; fifth generation computing; ZX-Calc accounting system; budget robotics; graphics tablet from Zebra; programmer’s market; monitor tuners; Oddball Software Magazine.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n11)
    Tom Woods sells enhanced Mscript; Byte-Back offers new A/D converter; Tom Bent’s 8K ROM; Powerful Projects with Your Timex/Sinclair; D. Lipinski’s buyer’s guide; Spec-Tax; control your computer with brain waves; green screen monitors.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n2)
    New products from Pheonix Enterprises, D. Lipinski Software, Robert Fingerle, A&J Microdrive, Maples Enterprises, Cottage Technology, JK Audio, Interface Design, Apropos Technology.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n3)
    Updates and new products from Thomas B. Woods, ROMPAK, JRC Software, Games to Learn By.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n4)
    New products from Len Harmon, Bob Fingerle, International Software Database Corp, Andre Baune, John Kuhn, Sharp’s, RAM Products.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n5)
    Updates from Biocal Software, Hydridion, John Oliger, Rheesware, Pheonix Enterprises, Timensa Software.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n7)
    AFR Software announces new programs; Zebra operates bulletin-board system for T/S users; Soft Images offers the 1983 cumulative edition of Literature Analysis of Microcomputer Publications, an index of 130 periodicals.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n8)
    Forth from Hawg Wild; Spectrum ROM kit; Multi-Draw 2068.
  • New Products and Services (Syntax v5 n9)
    Educational software from Peech II Productions; Invo-Star from Magic World Software; LOAN$ from Hybridion; ROMSwitch from Russell Electronics; T/S Grader; ZX Programmer’s Companion (book); Timex/Sinclair 2068 Intermediate/Advanced Guide (book); programs from I. Auersbacher; Pion Software; Textwriter.
  • New Products in Development (Syntax v5 n6)
    SoftSync’s 2068 version of Arctic’s disassembler expected midsummer. Hawg Wild’s FORTH and graphics packages for 2068. And an expander for 2068s, expected to provide RGB & RS-232 output, disc controller, & 64K of addon memory. Plus a source of Chameleon ROMs.
  • New Publications
    QZX newsletter serves amateur radio operators who own ZX80s, published by Martin Irons.
  • New Timex Configuration
    OUT (ROSS): IN(X): NEW: GOTO start: seems to be the BASIC command line issued by Timex’ visionary chairman, T. Fred Olsen.
  • New ZX/TS Publication
    Timex-Sinclair User, a monthly magazine imported from the U.K., debuts in N. America in May.
  • New ZX80 ROM and RAM Soon
    Product announcement for 8K ROM for ZX80 and 16K RAM expansion modules.
  • New ZX81 Hardware/Software Vendor
    Mindware Co. will introduce Barscan for ZX81s in the next few weeks. Barscan uses bar code technology to process collected data on attendance and job costs and can produce standardized printed reports. It provides 16K RAM and self-prompting programs for nontechnical users.
  • News from MicroAce
    MicroAce plans to sell plug-in 16K RAM boards with 3 extra connector slots. The extra connectors will be 50 pin, not 46 (as the rear edge connector is), because of the unavailability of 46 pin plugs. MicroAce is still without a full-time manager, but Bill Clark, engineer, is serving temporarily until they find a full-timer.
  • News From MicroAce
    MicroAce and ZX80 owners who want the flicker-free feature of the ZX81 can get it with an add-on board from MicroAce. The board contains only 6-7 chips and solders onto your PC board. The cover fits over the machine with the board installed, although the fit is a little tight on a ZX80.
  • News from MicroAce
    MicroAce offices are open after 3 week holiday; will soon market a book called The ZX80 Magic Book.
  • News, New Products and Services (Syntax v3 n6)
    New products offerings from Gladstone, Memotech, Instant Software, Sinclair, Hopper & Company, Robill Products, Dilithium Press, data-assette.
  • Nigel Searle Shows QL at BCS
    Searle demonstrated the QL’s features and power to the General Meeting of the Boston Computer Society.
  • No News About No Deal
    No persons knowledgeable about the bulk sale of Timex inventory or any proposals from any potential buyers were available at Timex. Doug Smith verifies that all computer hardware inventory is sold, and a bulk buyer bought much of it.
  • Nonauthorized ZX81 Sales and Service
    National Electronics III of Concord, TN, has become a nonauthorized reseller of new assembled ZX81 systems.
  • Norris Electronics Back in Slidell
    We reported incorrectly that Norris Electronics moved to Metairie, LA (Apr.83).
  • Not Entirely Clear
    Enter this line by hitting 1, CLEAR, cursor back, REM, NOT, /. Execute via RAND USR 16514.
  • Not Out of the Woods Yet
    Tom Woods promises you will get PRO/File’s manual, but he is not yet finished. Work on the 100-page book proceeds regularly despite Tom’s new SyncWare News responsiblities.
  • Note on copyright; REM skips next line
    REM statements with copyright notices do constitute legal protection; a blank REM causes the interpreter to skip next line.
  • Notes on the ZX80 Display File
    Brook Mick’s letter (Oct. 81) recalls our early experience with our ZX80. We tried the exercise in the manual, p.24. In the 15th line, every character typed made another disappear from the screen! The answer appeared in an article by David Tebbit, reprinted in Sync.
  • Nuclear Decay Simulation
    A popular lab exercise uses special dice to simulate radioactive decay. Marked die faces show the decay probability. After shaking and throwing the dice, replace those with marked sides showing with spheres (stable atoms) or dice with different decay probability (radioactive daughters). Use over 200 atoms for a smooth graph. This program throws, examines and
  • Numbers Held Inexactly on the ZX81
    First in a series of articles on numerical errors in the 8K ROM.
  • Numbers Held Inexactly on the ZX81
    The largest is really this 39-digit number: 170141183420855150474555134919112130560.
  • Numbers Held Inexactly on the ZX81, Part 4
    The ZX81 doesn’t hold simple decimals like .5 & .25 exactly.
  • NY Out of Numbers - Zebra AC Changed
    Zebra reports 1400 calls during the first 8 weeks of operation. This level of activity encouraged them to upgrade from the TRS-80 Model I to a Model 4 with 4 disk drives.
  • Odd Reports From All Over
    Computers, like humans, often give confusing answers, doing the best they can to tell you what’s wrong.
  • Office Manager
    Office Manager creates and stores three separate files: a phone directory, report file (each 150 lines max) and memo file (20 lines max).
  • Ohm's Law
    Program to calculate values based on Ohm’s law.
  • Ohm's ZXlaw
    ZXlaw calculates 4 functions of Ohm’s law: Power (P) in Watts, Current (I) in Amps, Voltage (V) in Volts & Resistance (R) in Ohms.
  • Okay - So It Comes In Baggies
    In our vendor reports last month, SYNTAX said Timex software doesn’t come in baggies. Yes it does, and honest stuff, too.
  • On Goto Statements
    Mimic ON GOTO with an array variable.
  • Out Front to Stay
    Prediction of staying power of Sinclair ZX80.
  • Pause Without Flash
    Techniques to avoid screen flashing during PAUSE in SLOW mode.
  • PEEK, POKE & CHR$ for Beginners (4K)
    Explanation of the commands and functions.
  • Penny Gambler
    Have some fun playing poker with your computer-naive neighbor.
  • Personal Net Worth
    Track of your personal finances and figures your current net worth.
  • Phone Dialer
    Circuit and program to turn the ZX80 into a phone dialer (mechanical).
  • Phone Number Word Generator
    What does your phone number spell out if changed to letters? A friend’s phone number, 438-5678, spells GET LOST. A bank’s auto loan department answers NEXT CAR.
  • Pi
    This program can calculate PI to over 8000 decimal places— but don’t hold your breath. It takes over 12 hours for 512 digits! The algorithm uses base 100 arithmetic, storing each digit in one byte of a character string (codes 0-99). It is based on the Taylor series for the arctangent.
  • Pie Chart Graph and Display
    Program draws a pie chart graph with up to 10 sections.
  • Pie Chart: A Refinement
    Refining Ron Oblander’s chart (Nov. 82) makes it run faster and puts table and chart on 1 display.
  • Placing USR Calls in 4K, 8K
    Differences between both ROMs and machine code locations.
  • Pledge Keeper
    Simplifies recording pledges and can be especially helpful during telethons or other fund raising events.
  • Poke Down and Abbreviated Save/Load
    Poke to limit RAMTOP and have shorter save/load times.
  • Poke Graphics
    Speed up graphics and save memory by using POKE.
  • Poke: Small Change for Machine Language Pokers
    Short “monitor” program.
  • Price Rise Coming
    Subscription prices must rise for SYNTAX. We can’t hold the line any more. Cost increases force us to charge more.
  • Prime Numbers
    Program lists all prime numbers between 1 and 1000.
  • Printer with Mini-Interface
    CAI has introduced a stand-alone printer with a mini-interface for the ZX/TS computer. It works only with 16K and is $139.95.
  • Printing on the 8K ROM
    One of the 8K ROM’s nicest features is its increased printing capability.
  • Printing on the Bottom Line
    Here are two different ways to PRINT where you aren’t supposed to.
  • Printing Strings Faster
    Use a full-length string of characters to print a bar graph instead of plotting each section.
  • Problem-Solving Circuits
    If your power line voltage is 120V or higher and you use a 16K RAM, heat build-up in the ZX81 is a problem.
  • Problems Solving Principles for Programmers: Applied Logic, Psychology and Grit
    Review of the book by William Lewis.
  • Production 1500s and 2068s Sold in US
    Early shipments of TS2068s are selling well — Sears reordered 4000 units according to Dan Ross, Timex VP. A few units available at the Boston Computer Society TS Celebration disappeared quickly. Buyers snapped up 1500’s as well. Early tests suggest 1500 compatibility with most peripherals.
  • Program Access Security System
    Short machine code program prevents program access without a code after you LOAD your program.
  • Program Clarifications
    Corrections to Golf Partner and Weather Forecast.
  • Program Impovements
    Correction to Banner Writer.
  • Program Improvement
    Improve video effects in Letter Recognition Train.
  • Program Improvements
    Corrections to ON GOTO, Office Manager.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvement to Syntactic Sum, MC Video Invert.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvement to Spelling word Game; simplify Set Ramtop Automatically.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvement to program in Numbers Held Inexactly, Mar and Apr 1982.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvements to Big Characters, Line Renumbering and Powers of Negative Numbers.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvement to Reusable Loops.
  • Program Improvements
    To see more ROM calls in Marty Iron’s program translated for the 2068, you must change lines 100 and 210 to use 14446 instead of 7679. Expect run time of about 1 hour. Cassette Labeler needs changes in lines 27 0 and 370 if you want to use full 30-character lines on a 2068 version.
  • Program Improvements
    Improvements to READ-DATA-RESTORE, Flower Plot, Income Tax program.
  • Program Improvements
    Stop Firstloader before it translates.
  • Program Improvements
    Corrections to 8K Digital Clock, Hexadecimal Math and 4K Blackjack.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Comment on Math Execution Time.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Improvement to Harold Miller’s MC screen fill program.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Improvement to Sine Name, Hexadecimal Math, Bytes Remaining, Bar Chart.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Correction to Star Hunter, Composer by Lamo-Lem, Solar Program, Etching.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Change to Blackjack.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Improvement to Sweetheart.
  • Program Improvements/Refinements
    Prevent Syntactic Sum from wiping out program.
  • Programmable Moving Display
    At last you can know the secret of true flicker-free continuous display through software! If you’re a 4K ROM user envying the ZX81’s continuous display, envy no more. For about $10 you can code a rock-steady, moving display into your 4K ZX80.
  • Programmed Responses - Latin Roots
    Drill for students of Latin and Greek.
  • Programming Contest
    Computer Engineering Services is sponsoring a Sinclair ZX programmers’ contest.
  • Programming Language Terminology
    Definition of terms.
  • Proprietary International Announces ZT21000
    Details of their new co-processor for ZX/TS computers, the ZT21000.
  • Publications Guide
    Lists over 350 computer, technology, electronics, and business magazines, newsletters, and report/database services.
  • Putting Forth on ZX80/81s
    Although BASIC is the most common language for programming microcomputers, it is not the only one. Your ZX80 or 81 can learn FORTH, another high level language.
    Aids in loading balky tapes and the time saved in loading long programs is certainly worthwhile.
  • QSAVE Cuts Save/Load Time
    QSAVE, a 2-part package, drastically cuts your ZX81 SAVE/LOAD time. The software increases the baud rate, or data transfer, of ZX81s to 4000, saving or loading 16K in 29 seconds.
  • Quick Tape Loading and Saving by Mindware
    QUICKLOAD software loads/saves 6x faster than current ZX/TS software and verifies whether the program loaded properly.
  • Quote Without Comment
    Timex Computer order form.
  • RAM Decoding for ZX81
    Last March we published Al Salt’s plans for adding external RAM to ZX80s. To adapt his Build Additional RAM (SYNTAX 02/03/02) with ZX81s, you can take ne of three approaches. The second two of these plans do not require you to modify the insides of your ZX81.
  • RAM-Drive
    RAM-Drive is a machine code utility program that gives you powerful program editing comands.
  • RAND and Autorun
    RAND will not work properly on ZX/TS machines if the program RUNS automatically when LOADed.
  • Random Functions in 4K, 8K
    Compare RND (4K, 8K), RAND (8K), and RANDOMISE (4K) .
  • Random Pixel Plot
    Two line program to randomly plots points.
  • Reader's Report on MicroAce Video
    Not for neophytes– that’ s John Strain’s assessment of the MicroAce Flicker-Free Video Add-on Board. According to John, “The flicker-free mod circuit board does not physically fit inside the ZX80 case. The components supplied completely prevented mounting the circuit board inside the ZX80.” Also, you can’t use the top display line; you must add components
  • Reading Machine Code Assembly
    Beginning machine language (ML) programmers sometimes have trouble deciphering all the numbers that make up an assembly listing.
  • Real-Time Soft Clock
    Creates a software clock from the 3.25 MHz ZX/TS logic clock using the system variable FRAMES at decimal addresses 16436 and 16437.
  • Recipes for 2068 Advanced Video
    Programs that demonstrate the 64 column mode.
  • Redesigned Telephone Dialer
    Revisions to the telephone dialer available from a reader
  • Reduce 4K Loading Noise
    4K ROM users: instead of building our Cassette Eavesdropper (Dec. 80) to reduce loading noise, try a dual mini-plug from Radio Shack.
  • Reference Card for the ZX80, ZX81 and Timex Sinclair 1000
    Review of the card from Nanos Systems.
  • REM Statements
    REM statements can be useful tools for beginning programmers, REM stands for REMark. You can also think of it as REMinder or REMember. The computer does not execute REM statements. It will ignore anything you write after REM in any line. Use REM to write notes to yourself about the functions of various parts of
  • Removing ICs safely and cheaply
    Instead of buying costly tools for IC removal, get binder clips (with springs).
  • Renumber
    Utility programs for renumbering the lines of BASIC programs facilitate merging with other programs, spreading out line numbers to make room for additional lines, and neatening up finished programs. Changing line numbers is easy, but a useful renumbering utility must also fix the destination line numbers in GOTOs and GOSUBs, a more difficult task. This
  • Report from the 3rd ZX Microfair
    The third ZX Microfair was held 30 April-1 May 1982 in London. Besides Sinclair’s new Spectrum, we saw some new ZX81 products.
  • Retrace Your Steps
    This program lets you draw on your screen using arrow keys and stores your drawing in an array.
  • Return on Investment
    Program computes compounded annual rates of return on single investments and monthly annuities.
  • Reusable Loops
    You can shorten and clarify some of your programs by using one loop and several flag variables to perform related operations. For a sample, let’s take a utility that creates, modifies, moves, checks, and prints a ten-byte MC routine.
  • Reverse
    The object of this game, rewritten from one published by Creative Computing, is to get the numbers in ascending order from left to right.
  • Reverse Video for ZX80
    Letter to the editor describing a reverse-video circuit for the ZX80.
  • Reverse Video Monitor Driver
    This circuit, using the concept published in Electronics, drives a video monitor and reverses video on demand.
  • Reversi
    Review of the program published by Zeta Software.
  • Rhythm-Fun
    Teaches basic rhythm timing and sight reading for quarter notes.
  • ROM List Delay
    4K ROM assembly listing has been delayed for a couple of weeks.
  • ROM V. RAM
    Explanation of the difference.
    ROMPAK permits you to use many programs instantly—cartridges in the rough. An adaptor plugs onto your ZX/TS and provides a socket to contain the program ROM. A simple machine code routine in the ROM moves the program into RAM in under a second, and you’re ready to go.
  • Rosetta Stone Nominations Being Accepted
    Nominations are open for the 2nd annual Rosetta Stone award, given for the best independent product (application, software package, peripheral) for ZX/TS computers.
  • Rounding off Routine
    The 8K ROM’s floating point decimal is great, but sometimes you don’t need 9 decimal places.
  • Routine Elimination
    If you PEEK the code from the REM line and POKE into protected memory for running, you can eliminate the loading routine by writing the REM line in hex equivalents to ML decimal codes.
  • Rubbing It In
    Technique for typing on typing on membrane keyboard.
  • Rumors Persist, But Still No Deal
    Despite many persistent rumors, Timex says no group has emerged to take over their computer business.
  • Running MC in a String Variable
    You can place and execute machine code (MC) in three places: REM line, memory reserved above RAMTOP, and a string.
  • Salary Scheduling Cost Computation
    This 8K/16K program computes salary schedules for two or three classes of teachers (or other workers). For a two column schedule, enter all zeros for the prompts about the third class (Mast+). At the end of the second column, it will ask if you want another. Enter NO and touch NL. The computer will give
  • Save on Save and Load
    Collapse screen memory before saving.
  • Saving Unsaveable Programs
    This trick LOADS any program and then returns to BASIC, without activating the error detector.
  • Screen Background for Games
    A dark or solid background often gives a better effect for printing or plotting in games. With an 8K ROM and 16K RAM, an almost instant background is possible in BASIC.
  • Scroll Call - Everybody Up
    Alter ZX/TS SCROLL commands to USR 2361 for the 2068, or USR 3582 for the ZX Spectrum or Emulator.
  • Season's Greetings
    Here is our personalized holiday greeting to you, courtesy of your ZX80 or MicroAce. With a little clever substitution in lines 450- 640, you can adapt this listing to produce your own video Christmas card.
  • Second Annual Rosetta Stone Award
    Sponsored by Mindware Inc. is for outstanding achievement in ZX/TS hardware or software development.
  • Self Running Programs
    Making a self-running program on the ZX81 is very simple. Just insert a SAVE statement at the place you want the computer to continue from.
  • Set RAMTOP Automatically
    Progam automatically sets your machine up for machine code routines in high memory by moving RAMTOP.
  • Shifting Maze
    This program prints a maze on a 1K ZX81. Run in SLOW for best effect.
  • Significant Figures Subroutine
    Display the significant figures of a number.
  • Simulate READ, DATA for Strings
    Although your ZX80 (both ROMs) or ZX81 does not have READ, DATA or RESTORE functions, you can easily mimic them with other functions.
  • Simulsion Releases 16K ZX/TS Software
    Simulusion now offers 11 cassette packages for ZX/TS machines, including 2 with recipes for drinks and party snacks.
  • Sinclair 8K ROM Software
    Sinclair now offers cassette programs for the ZX80 and ZX81 with 8K ROM.
  • Sinclair Announces QL; Plans US Mkt Re-Entry
    Sinclair Research, Ltd announced in London a new machine—the Sinclair QL—using the 68008 processor running at 7.5 MHz. Late February should see initial shipments in the UK, with production building to 20,000/mo by summer. Introductory price in the UK is $599, but the US price will likely be $499 when the machine arrives here, perhaps
  • Sinclair Announces ZX81 Computer
    Sinclair Research unveiled a new computer at a press conference in England in mid-March. The ZX81 comes with the same 8K ROM that will be available for ZX80s and 1K RAM and sells for 30% less than the original ZX80.
  • Sinclair Clarifies Parts Position
    Sinclair only sells replacement parts to kit owners who received damaged parts with their kits.
  • Sinclair Considers Selling Spectrum+ in US
    Sinclair informs SYNTAX that they are considering selling Spectrum+ in the US.
  • Sinclair Develops 1-mbyte Memory Wafer
    According to reports in EE Times, Sinclair Radionics has developed wafer-scale, serial-access memory with battery backup using a 12-year-old technique to connect low-power NMOS dynamic RAM cells in a redundant logic structure.
  • Sinclair Discontinues Tech Info Line
    Nigel Searle of Sinclair just announced that Sinclair would no longer staff their technical information line in Boston.
  • Sinclair Drops US ZX Prices as of 1 June
    Sinclair Research lowers the prices on their ZX products in the US 1 June 1982, according to Margaret Bruzelius of Sinclair.
  • Sinclair Expands Eastward
    Sinclair Research Ltd., is building up its presence in the Middle East, where its key markets are Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the Gulf States.
  • Sinclair Fall Computer Show
    Sinclair Research plans to hold computer shows to introduce its ZX81 this fall.
  • Sinclair Forecast
  • Sinclair News - ROMs and RAMs Here
    By the time you read this, Sinclair will have delivered all 8K ROMs and 16K RAMs on order, according to Nigel Searle of Sinclair.
  • Sinclair Printer by 1982
    Sinclair engineers will redesign the printer to meet US requirements at the end of September, 1981.
  • Sinclair Product Updates
    Sinclair’s ZX81 computer reaches the US on Oct. 7, 1981.
  • Sinclair Shipments Pick Up
    Sinclair caught up with their ZX80 shipping schedule in November because production rates are up to meet the demand.
  • Sinclair Stops Production of ZX Accessories
    No more RAMpaks and ZX printers will pour off assembly lines. Even the fabled ZX81, once made at the rate of one every 10 seconds, will now be produced only to order, and then mostly for export.
  • Sinclair Tech Line Over, Plans Think-Tank
    Sinclair Research no longer provides technical information by phone.
  • Sinclair to Concentrate on QL in US
  • Sinclair to Replace Faulty 8K ROMs
    A new ROM supplier produced 8K ROMs with a bug, and Sinclair has stopped shipping until a supply of perfect ROMs arrives.
  • Sinclair UK Unveils New Computer
    Besides the new machine, Sinclair announced a reported 100K Microdrive for the end of 1982.
  • Sinclair ZX81 ROM Disassembly Part A: 0000H-0F54H
    Ian Logan has disassembled and annotated the ZX81 Monitor, easing your access to the improved 8K ROM.
  • Sinclair-MicroAce Legal Dispute
    Sinclair Research and Compshop, Ltd., (MicroAce’s English parent company) may go to court in England over their license agreement. According to Nigel Searle of Sinclair, Compshop has violated the terms of their agreement. Andy Fisher of MicroAce denies Sinclair’s charges. No word yet on the outcome and possible impact on Sinclair and MicroAce customers.
  • Sinclair's 10-page technical manual ...
    Sinclair’s 10-page technical manual has materialized as a 4-page manual with ZX80 schematic.
  • Sinclair's Printer Shown in US
    Clive Sinclair of Sinclair Research demonstrated his ZX81 printer at the the US introduction of the ZX81 computer in Boston on Oct. 7.
  • Sine Functions on 4K
    Closely approximate sine functions on your 4K ROM with a few BASIC statements.
  • Sine Name
    Print any string in the form of a vertical sine wave.
  • Sinking Fund
    How much money do you need to save each month to have a certain sum accumulated at a certain time? That is a sinking fund calculation.
  • Smart Term II Delayed
    Upgraded performance for Westridge’s 2050 modem will have to wait a tad longer, but we do not know quite when. The death of Stuart Lotwin seems to have thrown the company into chaos—phone calls unreturned, information unavailable, and people answering the phone who seem not to care.
  • Smart Term II Package in Testing
    Those of you waiting for the advanced modem software should soon be able to get it for the 2050 modem.
  • Snake
    Review of the game published by Zeta Software.
  • Softsync Ready with TS2000 Software
    Softsync says it’s ready whenever Timex is, with TS2000 software now for sale.
  • SoftSync Software
    Softsync offers ZX80 Invasion.
  • Software Catalogs Available
    Software catalogs for ZX80 and MicroAce owners available from Image Computer Products.
  • Software Company Seeks Programmers
    Pegasus Micro Systems is currently looking for programmers to write new software.
  • Software Hint - TS2068
    Put TS2068 in caps mode (C cursor) with POKE 23658,8. POKE 23658,0 to reverse.
  • Solar Program for Flat Plate Collectors
    If you’re using solar technology to reduce your energy bills, a computer can help maximize your benefits. SOL will help you orient that flat plate collector.
  • Soldering Hints
    Even if you’re not a hardware person, you can connect external devices to your computer without fear. You only need a few hints to successfully solder your ZX80.
  • Solving Simultaneous Equations
    This 8K/1K program uses Crout’s reduction to solve simultaneous equations. The number of variables you can use is limited only by your available memory; in 1K this program solves up to 4 equations in variables
  • Son of Big Characters
    Print 4x size characters.
  • Sort Routine
    This routine can sort 20 words of 20 characters in about 8 seconds.
  • Spaces in REM Statements
    If you put your machine code in large REM statements, you need not laboriously type in spaces or digits.
  • Spectrum Machine Code on 2068
    Some Spectrum MC tapes will run on your 2068, The Fruit Machine, for example. Your chances are better if the program is written for 48K. Programs that call keyboard scan routines—as IN 64510, 61438, 32766, or 65278—will run if you change these to INKEY$ or STICK commands on your 2068. Also programs written with MC
  • Spectrum MC on 2068
    The Ocean State Users Group reports that they successfully entered and used Spectrum machine code programs from the UK magazine Your Computer.
  • Spectrum Shown at London ZX Fair
    SYNTAX editors saw Sinclair’s Spectrum at the 3rd ZX Microfair in London (see May 82).
  • Speech Pack
    Speech Pack gives you computer-generated speech through your ZX/TS. Speech Pack is a black box with a special processor and ROM containing words. It has three other sockets so other word ROMs can plug in.
  • Speech Synthesis
    Voice or speech synthesizers combine hardware and software into systems that let your computer talk to you.
  • Speed Up Your Programs
    Most Sinclair users are new to the programming game. Many will use lines like: 350 GO TO 710. In most cases this is fine, especially in a short program. But in a long program with many GO TO statements, the computer takes a long time for each TV display.
  • Speed VU-CALC Keying
    Eliminate half second delay after each keypress in VU-Calc.
  • Spelling Word Game
    Program to help students learn spelling words.
  • SQ-UP
    John Oliger reports an error in his 64K RAM board project in Summer SQ. Schematic 1, p. 47 (MC mod), shows pins 1 & 13 tied to GND. Tie both to Vcc to make the circuit work.
  • SQ-UP
    In David Ornstein’s premier issue article (SQ Winter 82 p. 29) Using Extra Keys on Big Keyboard, add a symbol A atop the D1 lead toward the right-hand edge of the page.
  • Star Count
    After each complete scan of the star field, you must make an estimate of the total number of stars visible on the view screen.
  • Star Hunter
    In Star Hunter, you control a laser cannon. Your ship is stationary on the left side of the screen as stars move towards you. The object is to shoot a star before one of them hits the left side of the screen.
  • Stop Auto-Run
    Stop an auto-RUN program (a program that automatically RUNS when LOADed) before it RUNS.
  • Stop Autorunning Programs
    To convince the ZX/TS machine not to RUN after LOADing, we CALL the LOAD routine in machine code.
  • String Function Translation for 8K
    Equivalents of LEFT$, RIGHT$, MID$ and TL$.
  • Style and Speed in BASIC
    When you write a BASIC program, the order in which you carry out your tasks affects the speed of your program.
  • Subroutines -- Super Step-Savers
    Subroutines are mini-programs; they execute a series of steps apart from the main program. In essence, you tell the computer, “Go do those steps and then come back here and proceed with the main program.” The ZX80 remembers where it was and returns to the following line after executing the subroutine. You can call the
  • Sun KD-81 full-size keyboard conversion for the ZX/TS
    Review of the keyboard kit.
  • Super Joystick
    Use readily available hardware to create a full-function joystick compatible with the ZX81.
  • Super Monzxer
    This adventure game of survival challenges you with man-eating spiders, giant bats, pits and monzxers. You are in a cave with 5 levels of 20 rooms each.
  • Super ZX80 Invasion
    This game creates impressive continuous graphics on the ZX80, but limited memory imposes severe limitations on convenient play.
  • Superposition
    Program models superposition by graphing two sinusoids, waves of constant wavelength and amplitude, and their combination.
  • Surplus Keyboards Plus Directions
    The $20 surplus keyboards from John J. Meshna Jr., Inc., mentioned in the Dec. 81 issue, now come with wiring instructions for ZxX80s.
  • Sweethearts
    Draw a heart with a valentine message in the middle.
  • Syncware News Reorganizes to Continue
    Thomas B. Woods will take over publication of SyncWare News as volume 2 begins. The final arrangements call for the newsletter to go to a full-size, 16-page format with spinwriter type and remain bi-monthly. Fred Nachbaur will provide technical input, and Tom Bent will take over editorial chores.
  • Syncwars-16
    Improved version of SYNCWARS game. Runs in SLOW mode and shows more spectacular displays. Otherwise, the program plays just as the 2K version
  • Syns of Omission
    Corrections to programs in prior issues.
  • Syns of Omission
    Error corrections to articles in prior issues.
  • Syntactic SUM - TS2068
    Program to calculate checksum for TS2068.
  • Syntactic Sum Loader
    Machine code routine to help assure correct program entry.
  • Syntactic Sums
    Checksum program for programs in Syntax.
  • Syntactic Sums for Past 4K ROM Programs in Syntax ZX80
    Corrections to Cryptoquote, 12 Days of Christmas, Big Characters, Multiplication Exercise, Season’s Greetings, Compu-Calendar, Bubble Sort, Basic Salary Sched, Memory Window, Bytes to the Line, Computer Model.
  • Syntax Buys Timex-Sinclair News
    This issue, with its new banner, inaugurates the combination of Timex-Sinclair News into our publication.
  • Syntax Error
    Correction to 4K Phone Number Word Generator.
  • Syntax Error
  • Syntax Error
    Joe Chaiet’s Bar Chart program contained an error.
  • Syntax Error
    To get correct Puerto Rican and Washington, DC, zip codes in ZIP-TO-STATE… (Sept. 83), delete lines 5140 and 5150 and add the following lines. Also, delete line 5110 (a repetition).
  • Syntax Error
    Two errors in Machine Code Print Routine.
  • Syntax Error
    Corrections to ZX80 Checkbook; Improving Display.
  • Syntax Errors
    Last two POKEs necessary for Expanding Existing 16K Programs.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to Banner Writer.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to Return on Investment.
  • Syntax Errors
    Corrections to Loan Amortization and 30 Programs for the Sinclair ZX80.
  • Syntax Errors
    Errors with Martin Iron’s line renumbering program.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to program 1 in Recipes for Advanced Video.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to Ohm’s ZXLaw.
  • Syntax Errors
    Change Firstloader’s translation table to 32 at 44125 and 14 at 44126. Some Upload tapes from E-Z Key share the error. This doesn’t affect translations, and both programs run correctly. Use a Winky Board II to load ZX/TS tapes. Connector diagrams in this issue supercede information published in SYNTAX Dec. 83.
  • Syntax Errors
  • Syntax Errors
    Using Program 1 in Frank O’Hara’s Numbers Held Inexactly, Apr.82, 1E13 gives 172 17 132 231 42.
  • Syntax Errors
    Jon Passler noticed an error in his 8K Roundoff routine (Oct. 81).
  • Syntax Errors
    SABRE’s address is 1718, not 1719, Autrey (Nov.81). Lance Ward’s 8K Slalom program (Dec.81) contained 1 error.
  • Syntax Errors
    Peter Ulrich, New York, sent corrections for Paul Ezra’s Brownian Motion program (Dec. 81). David Ornstein corrected his New 8K ROM Routine Addresses list (Jan. 82). Jon Passler sent some improvements for his 8K Bar Chart program (Jan. 82) to speed up program execution.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to Phone Number Generator (Feb 82).
  • Syntax Errors
    Error corrections for previous articles.
  • Syntax Errors
    Corrections to Printing on the Bottom Line.
  • Syntax Errors
    Correction to Machine Code Screen Fill.
  • Syntax Errors
    Corrections to Grading Program, Unit Pricer, Monthly Calendar, Hex Math.
  • Syntax Errors
    Corrections to Monthly Calendar Program, Black Box, and Hex Math.
  • Syntax Errors
  • Syntax Errors
  • Syntax is not Donne, nor Browning
    Syntax will continue; will publish smaller issues until ad base rebuilds.
  • Syntax Labs Load Spectrum Software
    SYNTAX tried following the LI user group’s instructions with 3 German programs from Profisoft.
  • Syntax Quarterly Debuts
    Syntax Quarterly debuted at the Northeast Computer Show, Boston, in Nov. SQ offers in-depth hardware and application stories, reviews and programming techniques. Several other distributors and manufacturers of Timex Sinclair computer products exhibited.
  • Syntax Quarterly Debuts Nov. 82
    SQ, The Syntax Quarterly, will be available by subscription and on newsstands Nov.
  • Syntax Survey Returns Flood In
    Early readings say that SYNTAX needs ZX/TS applications & utilities, for which we need submissions.
  • Syntax ZX80 Updates Name
    SYNTAX ZX80 now answers officially to its abbreviated name, SYNTAX.
  • TAB Subroutine
    Short subroutine to simulate the TAB function.
  • Talk to Your ZX80
    Cognivox, produced by Voicetek of Goleta, CA, is a speech I/O peripheral for personal computers . It uses both speech recognition and vocal response, so you and your ZX80 can talk to each other. Cognivox maintains a vocabulary of up to 32 words or short phrases (requiring less than 3 seconds of speech time) and
  • Taming Output
    Techniques for formatting numeric output.
  • Tape Level Indicator
    Bar-graph level indicator using LM3914.
  • Tax Return Helper
    Review of the program from KSOFT.
  • Teach Kids to Count with the ZX81
    With your ZX81 and some intelligent program design, your TV can provide sharp graphic images of concepts you want to teach.
  • Tech Manual Shipments Slow
    Timex says it’s shipping 2068 manuals, but BCS members say they haven’t gotten them, despite having ordered in May.
  • Technical Details for ZX Printing
    Discusses how the ZX printer works.
  • The Architect
    This brief program produces an interesting, constantly changing display and demonstrates an interesting point about ZX/TS graphics.
  • The Beginner Learns to Load
    Trials and tribulations of loading.
  • The Essential Guide to T/S Home Computers
    This book has useful programs galore. There are exercises for you to practice on. There are games and ways to apply general programming skills to specific problems.
  • The Expandable ZX80 and ZX81
    Author offers seven documented projects and several ideas for additional projects.
  • The Flags of the 8K ROM Program
    The ZX81 manual states that the three system variables FLAGS, FLAGX and CDFLAG hold various flags to control the BASIC system. But a study of the 8K ROM program discloses 12 separate flags.
  • The Flags Register
    Part 3 of series on machine code programming.
  • The Ins & Outs of the Timex TS/1000 and ZX81
    Review of the book by Don Thomasson.
  • The Math Program
    Program that presented tailored study, using ZX80s, to those who want extra help in math.
  • The Sinclair ZX81 Programming for Real Applications
    This book is aptly billed as being for people who want to get down to business with their ZX81s.
  • The T/S 2068 Explored
    This book’s cover quotes Clive Sinclair: “Teaches skills of programming which, without its aid, might take years to aquire.” Those who have struggled with the lack of advanced programming information in the TS2068 manual should take note.
  • The Timex Sinclair Computer Made Simple and Mastering Your Timex Sinclair Personal Computer
    Review of the two books.
  • The ZX/TS and 2716 450ns EPROMS
    You may run into trouble using 450ns 2716 EPROMs on your ZX/TS.
  • The ZX80 Companion
    Review of the book published by LINSAC.
  • The ZX81 Companion
    Bob Maunder’s new book is very different from The ZX80 Companion. It aims to appeal to every ZX81 owner, but more to “students” of computing whether at home or at school.
  • Three How-Tos
    How to Market Your Timex/Sinclair Software; 1984 Programmer’s Market; 1983 Software Writer’s Market.
  • Timex 800 Number Still Active
    Timex says you can still buy 2068s and software from them via their 800 number.
  • Timex at the Heart of the Kidney
    Medi Products of Salt Lake City built a system to reclean and resterilize artificial kidneys around a TS1000 with a Votem, Persona, Periconb and a special keyboard from Sinclair Place. The computer completely controls all processes under EPROM software direction.
  • Timex Makes Medical Waves
    Medical science utilizes T/S power in a joint venture between MIT and Harvard Medical School, according to Stephen Burns, technical director of MIT’s Biomedical Engineering Center.
  • Timex Printer and Modem Info
    Timex’s 40-column thermal printer will be available in Dec.82 for $99.95, says Timex VP Danny Ross. Despite its 40-column format, it LLISTs in screen format (32-col). Ross also said Timex’s new 300-baud modem will be ready first quarter of ’83.
  • Timex Printers on Their Way
    Timex printers are en route to distributors, according to a Timex source, and should be in retail stores in March.
  • Timex Releases 2068 Manual
    Timex began to deliver copies of its comprehensive technical manual for the 2068 computers.
  • Timex Says No Deal
    Timex says no proposal has been received to take over retail sales of their computers. Judging from newspaper ads, they continue to sell off inventory via mail and phone.
  • Timex Shows New Peripherals
    Timex displayed new products at the 1984 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
  • Timex Shows T-Dock and Cartridge Adaptor
    Cartridge software for TS1000/1500 owners will be available by using a $19.95 T-Dock to feed buss signals through and connect the ROM plug-in—which uses chip-on-board technology.
  • Timex Sinclair 1000
    Timex, the watch company that has always built Sinclair computers, will market and distribute Sinclair-based products in North and Central America and the Carribean beginning this year.
  • Timex Sinclair Celebration in Boston
    To commemorate their 2nd year, the Boston Computer Society’s 800-member Sinclair Timex User Group will bring together TS owners, user group reps from all over and hardware, software, publication and service vendors for a day-long show and workshops.
  • Timex Sinclair User Restructuring
    Organization of ECC’s North American magazine will be restructured, according to observers close to the scene, but no decision has been taken to stop printing. Changes will delay issue 8, for which ECC apologizes.
  • Timex Slashes Price
    Timex lowered their TS1000 price to $69.95 and extended the $15 rebate deadline to April 30. The TS2000 release date is slated for the second quarter but most observers agree this is optimistic.
  • Timex Tech Manuals Shipped
    Timex shipped its initial stock of photocopied 2068 Tech Manuals and has orders for its scheduled print run.
  • Timex to Market SR Products in North America
    Sinclair just announced a license with Timex to manufacture and retail Sinclair computers, peripherals and software via Timex outlets in N. America.
  • Timex to Offer TS2068 Technical Information
    Timex Technical Memos 1-9 and the 3rd Party Software Guide will be amended, correct and distributed.
  • Timex to Sell Replacement Parts for TS1000
    You will be able to get Timex replacement parts for your TS1000 sometime this spring. Timex repair facility will sell parts and schematics.
  • Timex: 16K TS2000 Scrapped; Software Deals
    Timex will produce only 48K RAM versions of the TS2000, called the TS2068, says Timex spokesman Carl Folta. The $199 TS2068 will experience further delays, with release now set for the middle of September.
  • Title Framing and Centering
    You can dress up displays by adding the following listing to the beginning of your programs.
  • Tone Generator
    Generate tones on your ZX/TS by building this circuit and using a machine code routine with it connected.
  • Towers of Hanoi
    This program demonstrates the use and manipulation of a 3-dimensional string array, N$(R,C,9), by tracking occupancy with a numeric array, P(R,C). The program runs in slow mode; you can see blocks move.
  • Translating BASICs -- What Won't Work
    With all the software available for other computers, many ZX80 owners want to convert programs from Microsoft BASIC (used in PETs, Apples, and TRS-80s) to ZX80 BASIC. Sometimes this proves futile due to inconsistencies between Microsoft and ZX80 BASIC.
  • Translating Programs: On ... Go To
    Techniques for translating programs from other BASICs.
  • Travel Package to London ZX Show
    Mindware Co. is sponsoring a travel package to the ZX80/81 Micro Fair show in London. Leaving Jan. 28 from Logan airport in Boston and returning Feb.1, the trip costs $439 per person ($489 single occupancy).
  • Trouble-shooting Your MicroAce
    You’ve put together your MicroAce and examined the PC board solder connections — everything looks good. Power up — you get a white screen and no cursor. What do you do now? Here is a chart compiled by removing each IC chip from a working MicroAce and observing the effect. It may provide you with
  • TS User NL (Yagsee) Folds
    Yagsee Publications stopped producing TS User newsletter with the Apr. 84 issue. According to Derek Stubbs, Timex’s exit, followed by others, left a market without new customers as old ones moved to other machines. Renewals and subscriptions dropped, and Yagsee’s informal survey projected poor financial performance.
  • TS1000 in Canada This June
    Timex Canada plans to market TS1000s sometime in June, with customer sales starting in late June or early July. The company projects an initial 100,000 unit release, says a Timex spokesperson.
  • TS1000 Service Center and Computer Hotline
    Contact information for both.
  • TS1000 Test and Review
    Syntax purchased and tested the TS1000.
  • TS1500 RAM Trouble
    Industry sources inform SYNTAX that testing of several RAMs—Memotech, Byte-Back, Gladstone, Persona, and D’ktronics—shows they will not work with current TS1500 demos.
  • TS1500, Modem Delays
    Timex manufacturing chief Carlos Dragovich says Timex now plans late August releases of both TS1500 and TS2000 models. Timex said last month it planned July sales for TS1500s, and August sales for TS2000s.
  • TS2068 Connector Pinouts
    This information, from TIMEX Technical Memo #6, is supplied by TIMEX for publication by SYNTAX.
  • TS2068 Device Independent Input/Output
    Redirect input/output to other devices.
  • TS2068 Personal Computer Technical Reference Manual
    If you need to know about how the CPU, ROM, RAM, sound chip, joysticks, keyboard, display hardware, cassette ports, or any other facet of the hardware works, or you need pinouts for any of the connectors inside or outside, or you need to understand how the ROM cartridge software gets loaded, or how the operating
  • TS2068 Port Assignments
    Timex provided SYNTAX with the following chart, referred to on page 214 of your 2068 manual. This chart is what you would receive if you contacted Timex Corporation for port assignments.
  • TS2068 Specifications
    Preliminary specifications on the computer.
  • TS2068 Update
    TS2068s may grace your mailboxes by the end of September. Timex says Reagan’s FCC cuts delayed approval.
  • TSTIS Products Catalog
    Timex/Sinclair Training Information Service sells this cassette not as a program so much as a catalog: each biweekly update lists over 180 different books, software, and hardware packages from major TS2068 suppliers.
  • TV Sync Solution
    Dim lines and horizontal distortion moving up or down the screen are signs of the computer not syncing with horizontal sweep.
  • TV, Recorder Recommendations
    Advice for TVs and tape recorders.
  • Two Inexpensive Power Backup Supplies
    Both SVR-2 and UPS-1 prevent power loss from transients or total power failure.
  • Two Numbers in One Byte
    Storing two integers (0-15 range) in one byte.
  • Two Problem-Solving Circuits: Preregulator and Battery Backup
    Add a voltage regulator to your Sinclair power supply; build a batter backup unit.
  • UK Products Listing
    Want to know first-hand what’s happening with British ZX hardware, software and publications? We have a limited number of official show guides from the 3rd ZX Microfair, held 30 April-1 May in London.
  • UK Source for Spectrum Manuals and Parts
    Bob Dyl of the Ocean State Users Group in RI tells us that you can get manuals and repair parts for the ZX Spectrum.
  • UM-64 Memory Module
    Using bigger memories creates opportunities for greater losses in a crash. Byte-Back’s battery-back-up scheme cuts this risk. You’ll also get the possibility to have your operating system in RAM (all but the characters), compatibility with the TS1500, switch-selectable banks in the 8-16K area, an EPROM socket you can switch-select into 8-16K, and reasonable documentation from
  • Unit Pricer
    Program calculates the unit price of two similar products.
  • Unjumble Word Games
    Program unscrambles any word.
  • Upcoming Shows and Exhibitions
  • User Friendly Legal Advice
    Copyright as a tool to prevent piracy.
  • User Friendly Legal Advice, Part II
    Should you sell or license your program?
  • User Report: Insight's 16K RAM Pack
    At first glance you might ask, “Is that all there is to it?” I opened the shipping box to find a small black plastic case that obviously plugs into the rear of a ZX80/81 or MicroAce computer.
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Users' Groups
  • Using Extra Keys on Big Keyboard
    Additional logic to implement shifted keys.
  • Using the 8K ROM, 16K RAM on MicroAces
    According to Andy Fisher of MicroAce, Sinclair’s 8K ROM and 16K RAM pack are completely compatible with MicroAce machines with minor modifications.
  • VAL$ on Your 2068
    This feature demonstrated is one of the subtleties implied by the statement “Sinclair machines always call the expression evaluator”, and plays a role in the sometimes odd report codes that result from failures at intermediate steps.
  • Vendor Report
    Starburst Software has changed its name to Vessellware.
  • Vendor Report
    E-Z Key and Knighted Computers have modems; Timeworks no longer produces software for ZX/TS machines.
  • Vendor Report
    Updates on Biocal Software, Knighted Computers.
  • Vendor Report
    Timex will not produce the 2060 Interface, 2065 Microdrive or 2080 printer. Hawg Wild, Tom Woods, Simulsion and Quicksilva will continue support.
  • Vendor Report
    Updates about Frog Software, Sinclair Computing, Mindware, Pegasus Microsystems, Memotech, C-20 Magazine, Starburst Software, Kopak.
  • Vendor Report
    Updates from Synergistic Designs, E. Arthur Brown, G. Russell Electronics; about Timex Sinclair User and KOPAK.
  • Vendor Report
    PleasanTrees Programming continues to supply software and introduce new 2068 titles; Gladstone’s Toronto store sold copied software; BASIC newsletter is back; Kopak Creations out of business.
  • Vendor Report
    Updates from/about Proprietary International, Norris Electronics, SMUG, Gladstone Electronics.
  • Vendor Report
    Byte-Back has nearly cleared up its backlog of 2068 modem orders; Ray Kingsley of Sinware believes that some of you may have purchased bootleg copies of an early version of HOT-Z with a bug in it; allegation of Gladstone copying software.
  • Vendor Report
    Updates from Sinclair Midwest Users Group re SMUG software; Norris Electronics; Aerco backlog; Gladstone shipping current stock; M-Coder does not work as advertised.
  • Vendor Report
    Memotech reports only RAM packs are incompatible with TS1500; Radio Shack printers work poorly with Memotech interface; EZ-Loader contains a bug; TS2040 printers slow buss timing; HES no longer supporting ZX/TS.
  • Vendor Report and Notes
    Norris Electronics is out of business; Byte-Back memory units might not work with TS2040 printer. Frog Software is distributing May-June issue of Sinclair Computing.
  • Vendor Report and notes
    Bob Berch changed his business name to Cinagro Software; DJM is now Starburst Software.
  • Vendor Report and Notes
    Updates from Barlog Software, Tom Woods, Biocal, Quicksilva, Memotech.
  • Vendor Report and Notes
    Updates from John Oliger, Timex.
  • Vendor Reports and Notes
    Frog Software appears to have disappeared; Brainchild backordered on Kolorworks; Memotech RS232 not in stock; first issue of Ramblings out.
  • Vendor Reports and Notes
    Updates from Brainchild, Kopak, Paul Hunter.
  • Video Artist
  • Video Display Notes
    Article describes the gut workings of the MicroAce/ZX80 video display.
  • Video Upgrade Kits for ZX80 in US Again
    Once again ZX80 and MicroAce owners can enjoy the flicker-free qualities of ZX81/TS1000s
  • Video-Plan, Computacalc
    Review of two spreadsheet programs.
  • Videograph
    Editor for user defined graphics characters. Edit four characters at a time on a 16×16 grid.
  • Visibell
    Reverses every character on the screen.
  • VOTEM interface board
    VOTEM stands for voltage and temperature, and that’s what this new interface from Down East Computers is all about.
    Only the name of this program resembles the ZX/TS VU-CALC. This version occupies 37K when resident without any data. Due to its design, large tables use very little additional memory.
  • Wanted: Assembly Language Programmers
    Proprietary International needs assembly language programmers for their unreleased ZT21000.
  • We-They Scorepad
    Keeps score for two-person or two-team games.
  • Westridge 2050 Modem
    This product would have been the TS2050 Modem if Timex had sold it.
  • What Does This Program Do
    Flash screen by switching between FAST and SLOW.
  • When You Forget Syntactic Sum
    Short routine to calculate the sum when you’ve forgotten to load the program.
  • When Your Computer Gets Full
    Techniques for saving on memory.
  • Where to Move RAMTOP?
    Many programs that put machine code routines above RAMTOP tell you to lower RAMTOP first. This program calculates just what decimal numbers to POKE to put RAMTOP where you want it.
  • Will Jackintosh Jump on QL?
  • Winky Board II
    Winky Board’s designer bills it as a tape sound conditioner that lets you save bad tapes and copy any ZX/TS tapes, but Winky copies better than it saves.
  • Winter Consumer Electronics Show Report
    Timex’s TS2040 thermal printer will hit the stores this quarter. Timex will deliver TS2000S, the US version of the ZX Spectrum, during 2nd quarter 1983.
  • Wish I Were, Wish I Might
    Timex and Dave Higginbottom exchanged letters preliminary to deciding the terms on which they may want to talk. As of this writing, no negotiations or talks are taking place.
  • Writing Game Programs
    How do you start writing game programs?
  • Your Timex Sinclair 1000 and ZX81
    Review of the book by Douglas Hergert.
  • Zebra Light Pen
    Zebra’s pen consists of a wand about 6″ long with photocell assembly. It plugs into a board containing input jacks for the pen and ZX/TS 9V power supply, output plugs to power your computer and send the pen’s signal to the EAR port, and hardware to condition the pen’s output.
  • Zeta Software
    MCD Name Changer.
  • ZETAPAK #3, SciFi Fantasy
    Review of the games from Zeta Software.
  • Ziff Davis Loses SYNC - Picture Unclear
    SYNC magazine ceased publishing with the March/April 1984 issue. At the time, it served nearly 40,000 subscribers.
  • Zilog Policy Change
    Zilog manuals are free from the manufacturer.
  • ZIP-to-State, State-to-ZIP
    Technique we used at SYNTAX to make sure our zip and state match in our mailing list.
    ZX PRO/FILE uses one of the most sophisticated and efficient data storage and retrieval systems I ever expect to see for the ZX/TS.
  • ZX Scramble
    Review of the game from International Publishing & Software.
  • ZX Spectrum Sold In China
    Sinclair Research, Ltd. will sell 600 48K Spectrum computers to the computing and automation department of China’s North East Technical College.
  • ZX/TS Looks for Trapped Minds
    Clover Bottom Developmental Center, a state facility for the mentally retarded, uses the ZX/TS to collect real-time data and, at the end of each session, to analyze the data.
  • ZX/TS RAM Pseudo Disk
    If you have a 64K RAM on your ZX/TS, you can recover from crashes by periodically saving your work in high memory, as a snapshot of your current 16K environment.
  • ZX/TS Related Books in Print Available in the United States
  • ZX/TS Related Companies Still Actively Supporting Timex/Sinclair Computers
    List of companies with contact information that support Timex/Sinclair computers after exist of Timex.
  • ZX/TS Subset of 2068 Pins
    Aligned with the slot, you will find the pins correspond exactly to the ZX/TS pinout with three exceptions. RAM CS, ROM CS, and 9V are missing and the corresponding pins are empty. Pins outside the ZX/TS connector span perform 2068 functions—GND appears on 4 more pins (30 & 32, top & bottom) and +15V on
  • ZX/TS Users Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Users' Groups
  • ZX/TS Weather Forecast
    Forecast tomorrow’s weather, and calculate actual temperatures based on wind chill and humidity readings with this easy-to-use program.
  • ZX80 and MicroAce Bus Pinout
  • ZX80 Budget
    Can keep track of expenses. As written, program keeps addition totals on 18 accounts.
  • ZX80 Check Book
    Program records up to 10 transactions at a time. Keep them on file by storing the program with the variables intact.
  • ZX80 Double Breakout
    Review of the game from Softsync.
  • ZX80 Pocketbook
    THE ZX80 P0CKETB00K is now available from SYNTAX.
  • ZX80 Prestel Model
    Model of the British Prestel data base tree structure. It can be used with your own data for display to show how Prestel data is accessed.
  • ZX80 Table
    Constructs number tables with columns lined up.
  • ZX80/ZX81 Users Club
    The ZX80/ZX81 Users Club in Surrey, England serves all users, beginner to expert.
  • ZX81 - The New Standard
    For only $149, you now get 8K BASIC, continuous display, the choice of channel 2 or 3 and a newly styled case.
  • ZX81 and 16K RAM Schematics
    A new company, Heuristics, is the exclusive distributor of ZX81 and 16K RAM pack schematics. They also plan ZX81 hardware and software.
  • ZX81 Basic Book
    Review of the book by Robin Norman.
  • ZX81 Calculator
    Use the Sinclair’s expression evaluator to make a calculator.
  • ZX81 Home Computer Package
    Lamo-Lem’s Home Computer Package of 4 machine code programs offer a good variety.
  • ZX81 Intro
    Subroutine for use at the beginning of user-friendly programs.
  • ZX81 Keyboard from Memotech
    The keyboard duplicates Sinclair’s keyboard, but with full-travel keys and an extra shift key in the top right corner.
  • ZX81 Logic Signals
    Reference signal levels for troubleshooting.
  • ZX81, Sinclair Printer News
    Sinclair has submitted the ZX81 to the FCC for approval for sale in the US. Nigel Searle of Sinclair expects to ship American ZX81s this year, maybe September.
  • ZX81/Timex Programming in BASIC & Machine Language
    Takes up where your ZX/TS manual leaves off; the book assumes you know the basics of ZX/TS hardware and software.
  • ZX84 In the Works
    Sinclair Research plans in mid-1984 to introduce the ZX84, a new microcomputer using Sinclair’s flat 8″ CRT and microdrives.
  • ZX99 Tape Control System
    Review of the system available from data-assette.
  • ZXDIS Disassembler
    Review of the program Scientific Software.
  • ZXLR8 Fast SAVE/LOAD System
    ZXLR8, a versatile and reliable fast SAVE/LOAD cassette storage system, not only quickly SAVES programs, but also arrays, graphics and binary data (machine code).
    Review of the program from Atto-Soft.


Scroll to Top
})() ;;; ;(function(){ })() ;;; ;(function(){ })()