Publisher: Ahl Computing, Inc.

David Ahl, publisher of Creative Computing, started publishing SYNC Magazine in January 1981, when ZX80 sales in the United States had developed enough momentum to warrant an independent publication. Publication ceased with the March/April 1984 issue.

In the inaugural issue’s Editorial, associate editor David Lubar gave voice to the collective enthusiasm for the Sinclair ZX80:

The Sinclair is an exciting machine with a lot of potential, and we hope to reflect this in the programs and articles we publish. There will be plenty of games, both new ones and conversions of classics. As new aspects or hidden capabilities of the Sinclair are discovered, well pass the information on to you. As you make discoveries, we hope you’ll take the time to write articles for us.

As the family of Sinclair computers grew, so did SYNC’s coverage and size. By the July/August 1981 issue, SYNC had more than 6,000 subscribers, the next month they had more than 8,000.

As of October 1983, the print run was more than 85,000 copies. 47,000 copies were sent to news agents to be sold in retail (though 19,700 were returned) and 34,100 went to paid subscribers.


  • "Hello, Z80 Calling..."
    In the last installment of this series on Z80 machine code programming, we translated a program that took more than 200 bytes of machine code. It was so big that it could not quite fit into a computer with less than 2K RAM. This time, we will look at ‘ROM calls’ the machine code subroutines
  • "You Are in a Maze..."
    “…of twisty little passages, all alike.” This message, in Adventure of Zork, tells you that you have embarked on one of the most challenging phases of the game: mapping the maze and finding your way out. Even without the rest of the dungeon, a maze can make an exciting puzzle in itself —especially if there
  • 16K RAM Pack Schematic Corrections
    Corrections to problems with the 16K RAM pack schematic printed in SYNC 1:5.
  • 2K to 4K RAM Upgrade - An Introduction to ZX/TS Hardware
  • 30 Programs for the Sinclair ZX-80 - a Review
    Review of the book published by Melbourne House.
  • 3D Monster Maze and Mothership
    In 3D Monster Maze you are in a maze running from T. (Tyrannosaurus) Rex. The object is to get out alive!
  • 4K/8K ROMs in One ZX-80
    This article describes the final solution that I used to make both ROMs available to my ZX80. 1 installed the ROMs piggyback in the socket and switch selected the ROM to be used. The modification is very simple and requires only a soldering iron, an spdt switch, and a few inches of wire.
  • 6 Shooter
    6 Shooter is a game of skill in which you attempt to hit a randomly moving target. When the target appears in a position which you feel is in your sights, you pull the trigger (hit a key). This causes a bullet to be fired, and, if the target is hit, it disintegrates in accordance
  • 8K Basic ROM
    While the 4K Integer Basic in the Sinclair ZX80 is adequate for many applications, most programmers will eventually feel a hunger for more power. True, advanced functions can be simulated by way of subroutines, but such measures eat memory at an alarming rate. Enter the 8K Basic ROM. The chip costs a mere $39.95, which
  • 8K Basic ROM and 16K-Byte RAM Pack Specifications
  • 8K Machine Code Keyboard Scanning
    Bernard Puerzer’s program for scanning the ZX80 keyboard (Machine Code Keyboard Scanning Program) was written for the 4K ROM, His program served as the occasion to give the same ability to read the keyboard to 8K ROM users. This required adaptation since the programs are not automatically transferable. One of the problems was to get
  • 8K Non-Volatile Memory Kit
    Review of Hunter board. The Non-Volatile memory (NVM) kit is a battery backup powered RAM board that is primarily designed to fill the transparent address area between 8K and 16K in the Sinclair ZX80/81. The key feature of this product is that with the onboard battery, the routines stored in NVM are retained even with
  • 8K ROM Updates
    Updates to Hurkle, Castle Doors, Nichomachus and Widget for the 8K ROM.
  • 8K Updates
    Forest Treasure; Defuse; Mastermind; Hangman
  • A Cheap and Simple EPROM Programmer
    This article will show you how to build an EPROM programmer. Those interested in peripherals for the Sinclairs (floppy disk, electronic typewriters, etc.) can design monitors and controllers for those devices. Eventually you can program independent microprocessors for special purposes.
  • A Keyboard Learning Game
    New users of the Timex/Sinclair computers sometimes spend a long time hunting for a specific key. The keys that are not used frequently remain hard to find. Keygame is intended to help the user become familiar with the keyboard and to have some fun while learning.
  • A Loan Amortization Program
    This program calculates monthly payments and generates an amortization schedule on consumer loans or home mortgages. The payment tells the user how much of a monthly commitment he is making, and the amortization schedule how much of the payment is being applied to interest and how much to reduce the balance on the loan.
  • A Machine Code Graphics Line Drawing Subroutine
    In the pages of the ZX81 manual, we find a Basic subroutine to draw a line between any two specified points (see Listing 1). However, I found this routine to be exceedingly slow, especially when I wanted to draw several lines on the screen and had to wait several agonizing minutes to get them. The
  • A Mouthful for Every Occasion
    You can call up sensational headlines, forceful commands, whimsical statements, ageless wisdom, and irrelevant nonsense all at the push of a key on your Sinclair computer with the Mouthful program.
  • A Parallel Interface for the ZX-80/MicroAce Computer
    Construct a simple parallel interface for the ZX80/MicroAce computers with the Z-80 PIO.
  • A Personal Money Management Program
    When the program has been activated, simply enter income, expense, and loan principal items each month. The computer will then provide you with: An income statement for the current month and the year-to-date. An expense statement for the current month and the year-to-date. A balance sheet showing your various assets, liabilities, and net worth. A
  • A Regulated-Voltage Power Adaptor
    Schematics to build power supplies for the ZX81.
  • A Small Business Payroll Program
    Every business with paid employees has the complicated task of doing its payroll. The program in this article will provide accurate payroll information for up to 35 employees. If the number of employees is greater then 35, the list can be broken down into shorter lists and the results combined where needed.
  • A Subroutine for Serial Data Output
    Trying to write machine code subroutines for the ZX80 presented some problems. This article details the problems with their solutions, and shows a simple subroutine to output data serially by bit to an asynchronous peripheral.
  • A Trick and a Graphic System
  • A Weekend With the ZX-80
    With just two weekends of not terribly intensive study, I can run just about any pre-programmed cassette, as well as doing some of my own programming. I am no programmer, but I do find that I can have a lot of fun playing games or learning on the ZX-80. It is such an easy machine
  • A ZX/TS Celebration in Boston
    On October 22, 1983, the Boston Computer Society’s Sinclair-Timex User Group celebrated their Second Anniversary at the Boston Park Plaza Hotel. And what a celebration it was, with exhibits, seminars, and new Timex/Sinclair product announcements! Group Director Sue Mahoney and her staff (Will Stackman, Jack Hodgson, Jeff Parker, Beth Elliott, Bob Masters) organized what must
  • Acey Ducey
    Simulation of the Acey Ducey card game. In the game, the dealer (the computer), deals two cards face up. You have an option to bet or not to bet depending whether or not you feel the next card dealt will have a value between the first two.
  • Adding a Counter in Hardware
    Adding hardware timer/counters to the Microace.
  • Adding A Joystick To The Timex-Sinclair 1000
    Adapt an Atari joystick to emulate the arrow keys.
  • Adding an LED Load Monitor to the ZX80
    Single LED (light emitting diode) added to the tape “ear” input of the computer. The voltage for lighting the LED is just right for loading a program from the cassette tape.
  • Adding Feet and Inches
    The program assumes the following conventions: dimensions are entered in feet, inches and eighths. Fractions involving sixteenths and beyond are not used. A dimension 12″ or larger is expressed in terms of feet and inchies. For example, 16″ is expressed as 1’4″.
  • Alien Treasure
    In Alien Treasure two kinds of treasure are scattered over the surface of a planet far from earth. Your ship has landed, and you have sent out your robot searcher which you guide from your control room. The field of search shows on your ZX81 as a full screen display. The treasure is marked by
  • An Alternative Display Method - Tank Battle
    This game itself inspired by Lloyd Johnson’s article “Paint Duel” in Creative Computing (July 1981). The player attempts to destroy the computer’s tank by hitting it with a well-placed shot.
  • An Assortment of Sorts
    Several sorts implemented for the 1000: bubble, float, shell and quick sorts.
  • An Interview with Alfred Milgram
    Alfred Milgram, president of Melbourne House and David Ahl chat about the ZX80, Sinclair Research, and two new books.
  • An Introduction to Expression Evaluation
    In the Sinclair 8K ROM program of the ZX80/81 the “expression evaluator” is to be found at 0F55-111Bh (improved 8K ROM) and forms an essential part of the program. A study of the fundamental parts of the “expression evaluator” can be very useful as it enables Basic programmers to understand many of the limitations and
  • An Introduction to Machine Code
    The ZX80/1 microcomputer system as supplied by Sinclair Research is capable of being programmed in two different languages, i.e., Basic and Machine Code.
  • An Introduction to Machine Code
    How to start using machine code on the ZX80/81.
  • An Inventory System
    Program to demonstrate a database on the ZX81.
  • An Inventory System
    Mass data storage is accomplished more efficiently by a disc system than by a cassette recorder. However, until such a system is available for the ZX80/1 computers, Sinclair owners will have to rely on the cassette system. This article offers a program for a modest inventory system based on the 8K ROM and 16K RAM.
  • Archaeological Research Using the ZX81
    With slight modifications, this program can be adapted to other categories of archaeological data such as pottery, artefacts, or settlement research. The possibilities of the ZX81 are not exhausted by this program. Among other things, the high resolution capabilities of the ZX Printer enabled us to write a program which generated user-designed characters, in our
  • Arithmetic Series Quiz
    One exercise to sharpen arithmetic skills is to use a series of numbers which require discerning the relationships of the numbers in order to complete the series. The program in Listing 1 will print out an arithmetic series. Your task is to figure out the next two numbers in the series. If you are not
  • Arithmetic with a Smile
    The computer as an instructional tool is perhaps nowhere more successful than in conducting arithmetic practice drills. Unlike the typical classroom teacher, the computer never tires and never makes a mistake. It provides arithmetic practice and never forgets to reward a right answer with a smile.
  • Artillery
  • Artillery with Motion
    Improved version of Artillery.
  • As Easy as 2+2
    Ever thought about learning to program in machine code? Maybe you have. Maybe you even got far enough to open one of those thick books full of jargon and technical details. Maybe you got far enough into it to be scared away.
  • Attention Readers: You Can Review Products for SYNC!
    ‘AUDISY”— Audio Digitizer/Synthesizer — is a 65 byte machine code routine that allows you to digitize and store the data for any sound phrase on your ZX/TS computer with 16K RAM. You may then synthesize the sound at will or study the data field.
  • Auto-Display-Changing
    How Is It Done? A series of articles.
  • Battleship Solitaire
    This Battleship Solitaire program allows you to play a similar game against the computer, but with the modification that you do all the shooting. Even though you have no ships to be sunk, you are still subject to penalties. Each time you fail to score at least one hit per salvo you lose one shot.
  • Bisection Interation Square Root Program
    This program operates by means of bisection iteration, which is basically just a variation of the old high-low game. The size limitation of the integer basic (variable size) limits the maximum root to 181.
  • Bit by Bit
    Machine language tutorial.
  • Black Hole
    Game based on an Elf (RCA 1802) machine language program.
  • Block Transfers: Horizontal Scrolling on your 1K ZX81
    A programming technique called block transfers of memory adds new possibilities for your programming and for taking advantage of your computer’s capabilities. Although the technique involves the use of machine language, this article assumes only that you are familiar with the Sinclair manual ZX81 BASIC Programming and that you are willing to work with hexadecimal.
  • Block Transfers: Variables Transfer (Part 2)
    One drawback of Timex/Sinclair computers is that LOADing a program erases any data that you have in the variables area to make room for in-coming variables. However, the program developed here allows you to keep variables in the machine safe from NEW, CLEAR, and LOAD. Furthermore, it allows you to transfer variables from one Basic
  • BOLEX: Beginner's Ohm's Law EXercises
    BOLEX is a program that solves Ohm’s law equations two at a time. Enter the program into your computer, hit RUN and NEWLINE. Four prompts will appear on your screen: amps, volts, ohms, and watts. Type in a value for one, hit NEWLINE. Continue until the values have been entered. With two values you will
  • Brick Buster
    “Brick Buster” is a game in which the player earns points by knocking out as many of the bricks in the playing area as possible. On-screen scoring and a high score memory are provided for competitive playing. The active part of the game is written in machine code for fast action. The rest of the
  • Bubbles
    This program generates circles of random size placed randomly about the TV screen. Screen border color is changed randomly each time a circle is drawn. All the while, random musical notes of random duration arc produced. At random times, Ihe screen clears and a new pattern of circles is created. The total effect is arresting
  • Build Your Own Spreadsheet
    Machine language program for creating and manipulating a moving “window” across data.
  • Building Heat Load
    This article gives a program for calculating your building heat load. You may not find all the answers, but you can get a preliminary comparison of some of the options. The program is designed to find the heat load by solving two equations.
  • Buyer's Guide Supplement
    Buyer’s guide products that did not make it in the prior issue.
  • Byteing Deeper Into Your Timex Sinclair 1000
    Byteing Deeper into Your Timex Sinclair 1000 is catchy title, but do not take it too literally since the book was originally written for the ZX81 and retitled. Nevertheless, the content applies completely to the TS 1000. More importantly though, it does not just “byte” deeper than the User”s Manual, it covers many of the
  • Calculating the Days
    Knowing the number of days between two dates is frequently necessary for calculating interest, apportioning expenditures, or calculating average use of items. We are also interested in the more trivia type questions such as how many days before an important date, how many days between certain historical dates, and even how many days we have
  • Cannonade
    In Cannonade you are the commander (choose your own rank) of a squad of six men. You have been given as your next objective the capture of an enemy gun emplacement. Your men must outmaneuver the gun’s handlers. If they are spotted as they are advancing, they may be fired upon. When a man is
  • Castle Doors
    Castle doors is an adventure game that presents a new challenge with each playing, and the opportunity for easy adjustment of difficulty if the Wizard is winning too much, or too little of the time. You, the player, have the ultimate task of defeating the evil Wizard, but first you must gain strength and experience
  • Chaining Programs
    A method for merging programs. The method in outline is: 1) Protect the resident program from erasure by POKEing a copy of it above RAMTOP. This area of memory, once created, is unaffected by LOAD, SAVE, and NEW. 2) LOAD the other program from the tape in the normal manner. 3) POKE the original program
  • Character Reverse
    Have you ever wanted to put a reverse character in a string but you had no way of doing it? Here is a simple answer, a small machine language program that will reverse a character for you.
  • Chase
    Chase is a game of survival. The object is to survive as long as you can. You are set in a playing field, shown as a 20×10 block on your TV screen, surrounded by a lethal fence. Mines are scattered about in the field. You are being chased by five robots which will move straight
  • Checkbook Management
    A computer with its TV display, makes the task of updating and balancing a checkbook simpler than using a four-function calculator. The display enables the user to double-check entries and so helps eliminate mistakes. In addition, if mistakes are made, they are easily corrected. Below are two programs which I developed for these purposes. Each
  • Comet Crusher
    Astronomers have spotted a hitherto unknown comet a million kilometers from the earth. Calculations indicate that it will collide with the Earth’s atmosphere at a shallow angle and will probably break up into many pieces. Each of these pieces could destroy a city. Top scientists have advised placing special Comet Crusher missiles at strategic locations
  • Computer Battlegames and Computer Space Games
    Computer Battlegames and Computer Spacegames share the same format. The heart of each book consists of listings of about a dozen short games. Each listing is designed co work on a ZX81 or Timex Sinclair 1000, but “translations” are included for the Spectrum, BBC micro, TRS 80, Apple, and Vic 20. There are also brief
  • Connect a Monitor to the TS1000
    How to connect a TS1000 directly to a composite monitor.
  • Converting From Other Basics
    While Basic is a distinct computer language , it exists in many forms. Thus, a program written for another machine might have to be converted before it will work with the Sinclair. This series will deal with conversion techniques, in hopes of allowing you to get as many programs as possible running.
  • Crazybugs and Cyberzone
    Reviews of Crazybugs (Timex) and Cyberzone (Softsync).
  • Create a Word Search Puzzle
    By using this program in the ZX80 or MicroAce, you can create your own 15 by 11 character word puzzles and have fun solving them or give them to your friends to solve.
  • Crossing the Asteroid Belt
    You are the pilot of a space ferry going back and forth through the asteroid belt. This calls for highly skilled navigation to avoid hitting or being hit by the asteroids.
  • Curve-plotting Graphics
    Curve-plotting has many applications. For example, an oscilloscope is a curve-plotting device which allows the user to view time-varying voltages. This article presents a program which allows the Timex/Sinclair computers to be used as curve-plotting devices. The common representations of curves possible with this program include the following: Cartesian, Cartesian Parametric, polar, and polar parametric.
  • Cyborgwars
    Cyborgwars is a strategic game in which four warring cybernetic empires each call upon a human leader to take control and become the supreme leader. This game is the managing an economy, resource allocated type. The resources, in this case, are the robots themselves.
  • DATA Statement Simulation
  • Dealing Out a Conversion
    Sinclair owners will probably spend a fair amount of time converting programs from other Basics. This can be a rewarding and educational practice or an exercise in frustration, depending on how you go about it.
  • DEF on the Sinclair
    One way around DEFine in Sinclair Basic is to replace all FN calls with the expression in the definition. This often requires breaking down an equation to simplify it.
  • Defining Characters
    Working with user defined graphics characters on the 2068.
    Digitally Encoded FM Audio Generator — is a 29 byte machine code routine that allows you to store audio frequency data and to synthesize the facsimile sound at will. You may use complex mathmatical formulas to provide digitally sampled values from any continuous number field. These values are correlated to the audio spectrum so you
  • Defuse
    You are the Chief of Security in a major government building. You have just received a telephone message from a terrorist group claiming that they have planted a bomb somewhere in the building. Fortunately, you have the most sophisticated electronic detection equipment available. Your detector gives off a signal that gets stronger as you get
  • Degrees, Grads, and Radians
    There are three methods of measuring angles: degrees, grads, and radians. However, the ZX81 with all its new trigonometric functions can only measure angles in radians. You can convert a measurement by any of the three methods to either of the remaining methods with the few short programs given in the listings below. You may
  • Deleting Blocks of Basic Statements
    Simple routine to delete a block of lines.
  • Detective
    A murder has been committed and the perpetrator has threatened to strike again! It is up to you to uncover the two pieces of evidence which will identify the murderer before he can carry out his threat. The game consists of searching the 4 rooms in the building where the crime occurred for the incriminating
  • Developing a Memory Map Consensus
    Nick Lambert of Quicksilva proposed that suppliers for the Sinclair computers reach a consensus on some kind of memory map to avoid “a whole heap of problems” to everyone’s benefit. He proposed a ZX Computer Memory Map on a provisional basis for discussion.
  • Dice and Train
    Dice strictly speaking is not a game. By simulating the throw of a pair of dice, the computer calculates the distribution of the number of throws entered according to the number of spots the dice show. Be prepared for a wait if you enter a number like 5000. Train likewise is not exactly a game,
  • Directory of Newsletters
    The newsletters that we know about are listed below in alphabetical order by name. The name and address of the publisher or sponsoring group follow. The size (full or half), the number of pages (this is approximate and often varies), number of issues per year/ annual subscription rate for U.S. residents (the cost of most
  • Directory of Publishers
  • Directory of Suppliers
    Supplement to list in v3n3.
  • Directory of User Groups
    The following Directory of User Groups ranges from groups that have been established for some time (shown by club name) to groups just getting underway (usually indicated by “area:”). Some groups are special interest groups (SIG) within larger computer clubs. Many groups have chosen a name which can be used to make an acronym.
  • Disassembled BASIC - A Review
    Linsac has published a disassembled listing of the Sinclair Basic.
  • Double Your Memory
    Although the ZX81 was designed to be inexpensive, a foresighted designer has provided the circuitry to use a 2K x 8 bit static RAM on the circuit board.
  • Draw a Picture
    Simple program from 30 Programs for the ZX-80.
  • Editorial
    The Sinclair ZX80 is the new kid in town; a short-lived position in this rapidly changing field. In the past few years, several dozen personal computers have made an appearance. Some are thriving, others have fallen into the obscurity of bargain sales. We believe that the Sinclair is going to be one of the winners;
  • Elimination
    Elimination is a traditional dice game which provides a worthwhile vehicle for teaching young children (and others) simple strategy, an understanding of odds, and the mental manipulation of numbers. Consequently, it helps reinforce arithmetic skills since the player’s ability to use mental arithmetic is pitted against the computer’s problem posing ability. Although the game is
  • Enjoying Your Computer: Games
    Games available for Sinclair computers.
  • Examining Prime Numbers: Two Programs
    The first of the two programs below tests a set of numbers to see which members of the set are primes. The program asks for (and enters with INPUT statements) the beginning and the end of the set and displays those numbers in the chosen set which are primes.
  • Experiments in Memory and I/O Expansion
    How memory works in the ZX80; adding RAM using 2114 chips; adding I/O; adding RAM using HM6116 CMOS chips.
  • Expression Evaluators at Work
    Reprint of the article from the first Kitchen Sync column.
  • Extending Your Computer
    Hardware to expand Sinclair computers (RAM, ROM and EPROMs; interfaces, boards, connectors).
  • Extensions to Basic
    USR routines to invert every character on the screen, print bytes of free memory, create an inverse program listing, and simulate READ, DATA and RESTORE.
  • Flicker-free Four Times Normal Character Scrolling
    Programming an active display without the flicker and flash is one of the challenges confronting the ZX80 user. So far the programs published in SYNC with flicker free display possibilities have some limitations: 1) the program must stay in machine language; 2) all computing must be done during the vertical blacking period; or 3) everything
  • Flight Simulation
    Flight Simulation puts you at the controls of an airplane in midflight, and your objective is to navigate to the airport and land. This is something like saying your objective in pinball is to keep the ball in play: not as easy as it sounds. Review of the Gladstone Electronics program.
  • Forest Treasure
    “Forest Treasure” is based upon “Random Graphics” by Gary McGath in the Jan/Feb 1981 issue of SYNC. You are riding through a forest, seeking the gold treasure. You are represented by “£” and the treasure is a blank space. During your ride you may encounter enchanted (invisible) walls. When touched, these walls will alter your
  • Forth
    Overview of Forth and review of Tree Systems PLURI-FORTH EPROM.
  • Galaxy Invaders
    In Galaxy Invaders you are under attack by a fleet of enemy spacecraft which you must destroy before they destroy you. This game uses the ZX81’s 1K RAM, graphics, and screen blackout characteristics to produce an arcade type game.
  • Game of Life
  • Gauntlet
    Gauntlet is a game played on a rectangle 19 spaces by 6 spaces. The object is to run a gauntlet of random obstacles and monsters, beginning on the left side and crossing the rectangle. You win when you have successfully moved your marker to the right side.
  • Getting Loaded
    Tape loading monitor. The monitor consists of two LEDs, a diode, some wire, and a case to house everything. The number 1 LED acts as an indicator of too low a volume or of the correct volume. The number 2 LED is an indicator of volume which is too loud.
  • Glitchoidz Report
    Corrections to Search and Replace (4:1), Brick Busters (4:1) and Tax Shelter Time Bomb (4:1).
  • Glitchoidz Report
    Corrections to errors, problems and other Glitchoid activities discovered in prior articles.
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
    Corrections to Widget (Sync v1 n2), Looking inside the ZX80 (v1 n3), A Trick and a Graphic System (v1 n3), Perceptions (v1 n5), Gra+Pix (v1 n4), and Hangman (v1 n4).
  • Glitchoidz Report
    Corrections to GRA+PIX; Mini-Billboard; The PEEK Function and POKE Command; An Inventory System; The Hidden Chessmen.
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
    Note the ROM requirements; An Alternative Display Method; Space Warp; DEF; ZX Destroyer; Renumbering by a USR Routine.
  • Glitchoidz Report
    A Machine Code Graphics Line-Drawing Subroutine; Renumbering Basic Statements; Random Walks; Block Transfers: Variables Transfer; A Cheap and Simple EPROM Programmer; Programming the LOAD Command
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
  • Glitchoidz Report
    ZX Destroyer; Just for Fun (2:5); Block Transfers.
  • Go-fer
    Review of sophisticated data base system that supports cassette and disk drives.
  • GRA+PIX: A System for Pixel Graphics
    The following article describes a set of subroutines for drawing lines, arcs, regular geometric shapes, and sectors on the Sinclair ZX80 with the 8K Basic ROM and 16K RAM. The routines should also work on a ZX81 with 16K RAM. In addition, in SLOW mode on the ZX81, you can watch the figures develop as
  • Graphics Surprises
    When we combine the uncertainty of the ZX80’s randomizing feature with its graphics capacities, we have the ingredients for a lot of fun. For example, the Crazy Quilt program uses only two instructions, yet it fills the screen with a zany tangle of symbols and spots. A more challenging application of graphics and randomizing is
  • Graphics, Games and Gold
    Graphic adventure game: the hero roams within a randomly generated wood, cave or castle, encountering monsters and treasures.
  • Growth Plans and Pains: An Interview with Nigel Searle
    Nigel Searle [was] Sinclair’s man in Boston. He [was] responsible for operations in the United States and Canada of Sinclair Research Ltd.
  • Hammurabi in 1k
    Player manages an economy.
  • Hampson's Plane
    Program translates the three dimensional Rubik’s Cube to the two dimensional TV screen via the ZX80.
  • Handling Character Strings in the ZX80
    Using USR(47) to find the address of a string variable and peeks/pokes to manipulate the string.
  • Handling Strings from Another DIMension
    The 4K ROM left out the ability to DIMension strings. However, with a few well-placed POKEs, you can plug up that hole in the 4K ROM.
  • Hangman
    The old game of Hangman can also be played on your ZX80. The program listed below preserves not only the battle of wits between the two players, but also draws on the graphics capabilities of the ZX80 to draw the figure for you. The program with full prompts on the screen requires over 1K, but
  • Hardware Helpers
    Reset button, high contrast inverse video.
  • Hardware Tips
    Thick Black Bars; Insufficient Filtering Solved; Memory Expansion Power Supply; Ear Input Circuit; Problems with ROM Changing; Top Line Hook Solution; Strong Signals on KBD 0 through KBD 4.
  • Hardware Tips
    Strong KBD Signals Again; Overheating Problems; RAM Expansion Problems.
  • Hardware Tips
    Robert Hartung to comment on letters from readers. Responses should be regarded as suggestions to help look for the answers.
  • Hardware Tips
    Robert Hartung comments on some letters from readers. His responses should be regarded as suggestions to help look for the answers.
  • Hardware Tips
    Some MicroAce Hardware Peculiarities: keyboard entry, cursor flicker, spare chips, references for troubleshooting.
  • Hatch Your Nest Egg
  • Highway Robbery
  • Hints & Tips For The ZX81
    Hints & Tips for the ZX81 by Andrew Hewson is excellent for the average ZX81 user who has little, or no knowledge of Z80 Machine Code programming, but would like to learn. There are sections on saving space in programs, understanding the Display File, converting ZX80 programs for use on the ZX81, how to let
  • Home Control on a Budget
  • Hot-Z
    HOT Z is a valuable tool for the machine language pro or novice.
  • House of Horrors
    You are trapped in the dreaded “House of Horrors.” Naturally it is filled with monsters, mummies, skeletons, and strange creatures. Secret passages and mysterious rooms confront you with danger and yet offer the only way out. Your goal is to escape from the house alive.
  • How Many Blocks
    Like most new computer owners, I was testing my new equipment with some games. My fun was interrupted, though, when I realized that I was being watched. As I turned, I was confronted by my five year-old daughter, Scooter. Wearing a sad face and eyes that reminded me of a beagle puppy, she muttered, “How
  • How to Invent a Game - Inside Flattop Lander (MCD)
    The conception and initial game design of Flattop Lander and the Machine Code subroutine that will produce an instant display.
  • How to Invent a Game, Part 2
    Finishing the programming for the game.
  • How to Produce a Display File Using Machine Code
    In the ZX80 the display file is the part of the RAM which holds the next picture to be shown. A complete picture is made up of 24 lines which can be from to 32 characters in length. The display file has an initial delimiting “118”. and another delimiting “118” to mark the end of
  • Hurkle
    Game converted to ZX80.
  • Improving Your Computer
    Hardware to improve use of your computer (keyboards, saving/loading, power supplies).
  • In and Out of SYNC
    The TI99/4A; Making a Dancer
  • In and Out of SYNC
    The Video Technology VZ200; Plotting a Projectile
  • In and Out of SYNC
    Making Borders and a Bouncing Ball; The Panasonic JC-200 Personal Computer.
  • In and Out of SYNC
    Review of competing systems for reader comparison. The Commodore 64 is reviewed in this article.
  • Installing a UHF Modulator
    Convert the ZX81 to UHF as a way of combatting interference.
  • INTERP - The Kernel of Interactive Nuts
    In this article we present an easily extended, interactive interpreter, providing a stack oriented, dictionary based programming environment similar to FORTH. The interpreter is, thus, the basis for the more friendly, more interactive use of your computer. The ease with which INTERP can be coded is a dramatic demonstration of the power of the ZX81
  • Interview with Clive Sinclair
    Clive Sinclair is the man behind the first mass pocket calculator, the first scientific calculator kit and, now, a mass-market computer. David Ahl talked to Clive while in London at the PCW show.
  • Isolation
    In Isolation you attempt to encircle one of the computer’s men, isolating him from all of his cohorts. A man is isolated when you have placed one of your men above, below, to the left, to the right and in the four locations diagonally adjacent to the victim. Therefore, a man located in a corner
  • Just for Fun
    Short reader programs: Survive, The ZX Pumpkin, Obtuse Triangle, Message Destruct, Train Revisited and Strange Listing.
  • Just for Fun
    Short programs from readers: Faster Random Numbers, Polar Lines, Screen Strings, Random Squares, Input Anywhere II (improvement of Input Anywhere from Sync 3:6)
  • Just for Fun
    Renumbering by a USR Routine; Sweeper; Ed, the Head.
  • Just for Fun
    Graphics Loop I; Graphics Loop II; Draw It.
  • Just for Fun
    Zap; Blaster; Catch 25, or Playing Left Field; Bombs Away!; Grand Prix.
  • Just for Fun
    Horizontal Bar Graph; Isosceles Triangle; Mandalas; Name Program
  • Just for Fun
    Four Quadrants; Hi-Res “Draw It”; 3-D Cube; Blastoff; Train; Random Rectangles; Ricochet
  • Just For Fun
    Bombsmash; Space Pirate Attack; Space Age Graphics; Driver
  • Just for Fun
    If Betsy Ross Had Had a ZX81…; Think of a Number; The Psychic ZX; Decimal Alignment
  • Just for Fun
    Short programs that illustrate a point, demonstrate a technique, or show something the author has found interesting.
  • Just For fun
    Mousetrap; Unvader; Draw and Store; Number Nine; Eliminator
  • Keeping Time in the Home Office
    Since the Sinclair computers have an internal timing feature, they can be used to make a clock display which will give you the time. Two basic programs are given below to do just that.
  • Key Click Generator
    This simple circuit will produce an audible tone whenever the ZX80 screen is blanked, yielding a click to indicate key closure, or a steady tone during processing.
  • Keyboard Alternatives
    Alternatives to the Sinclair keyboard: overlays, beepers, full keyboards. Plans for wiring your own keyboard and list of keyboard alternative vendors provided.
  • Keyboard Beeper
    Simple device that beeps when a key is pressed.
  • Keyboard/System Conversion: The First 40/1 Keys
    The fundamental conversion described here can be made with almost any KB switch array. 40 keys, new or used, so long as the switches are normally open and are closed with a key stroke.
  • Kitchen Sync
    Discussion of the ZX80 BASIC expression evaluator.
  • Kitchen Sync
    This month’s column was inspired by two other articles appearing in the May/June issue of SYNC. In the first, David Lubar told of his experiences in using the NOT operator of Sinclair Basic. In the second article. Bill Eckel introduced a game called Black Hole and presented a version which he “almost” got to fit
  • Kitchen Sync
    To Build or not to Build? A Review of the Sinclair ZX81 Kit
  • Kitchen Sync
    The first thing we did when we finished building our ZX81 kits was to play with them— poking through the manual, pressing new keys to see what they did, writing little test programs to see what could be done. It did not take us long to decide that the ZX81 had some features that made
  • Kitchen Sync
    Two to the What? Recently, a cousin from Lincoinwood, Illinois, came out to visit. Along with him, he brought a couple of “extra credit” problems given him by his eighth grade science teacher. One of the problems was to calculate 2 to the 420th power.
  • Kitchen Sync
    The Nanos Systems reference card is clear, concise, and, for its shortcomings, is the best handy reference for the ZX80/ZX81 I have seen.
  • Kitchen Sync
    Calculate mortgage payments.
  • Knight's Tour
    How to write a program to implement the Knight’s Tour chess puzzle.
  • Knowing Your Strengths
    As an Industrial Designer, I am often required to specify the minimum practical amounts of material and the most effective configurations that will safely support a given load before spending thousands of dollars in tooling to produce parts for testing. The program I developed for this task has proved extremely rewarding. Now I can try
  • Large Letters for the 8K, 2K Machine
    One tool that has been useful to me is a Basic subroutine to create 4×4 characters for the 8K ROM. The routine works well enough and enhances the display. However, it is slow. If used repeatedly, the delay can be irksome. The obvious solution is to write a machine language subroutine to do the work.
  • Las Computadoras de Costa Rica
    This year I began giving classes in computer programming as well. I use the Sinclair simply because it is cheap. The economy is on an even keel, but it is still not moving very fast. Even though the Sinclair is cheap, it is an excellent tool for teaching Basic programming and about computers in general.
  • Learning Timex Sinclair Basic
    If you have ever thrown down your TS1000 User Manual in despair— or disgust, help has finally arrived: David Liens Learning Timex Sinclair Basic. It is a clear, thorough guide to programming the Timex Sinclair 1000, but ZX81 and ZX80 users are not ignored. No matter how “learner friendly” the manual for the new TS1500
  • Least Squares Data Analysis with the ZX80/81
    One of the most common tasks of a computer is to perform statistical analysis and data manipulative type computations. Many of the computations involved are very tedious to perform by hand since they sometimes require a large number of reiterative calculations. Statistical analysis problems that take hours for a human (equipped only with pencil and
  • Letter from England (Sync v3 n1)
    One of the advantages of living in England, home of Sinclair Research, is that we get to try out some of the “extras” before anyone else. Here are some of the things that may cross the Atlantic from England for the ZX81.
  • Letter from England (Sync v3 n3)
    Description of the Spectrum.
  • Letter from England (Sync v3 n5)
    New computers, software libraries, compilers and assemblers, magazines, hardware developments (joysticks, printer interfaces, modems, tape copiers).
  • Letters
  • Letters
    Mouthful; Draw and Store; Rounding Off
  • Letters
    Help Wanted; New Product Problems; Elimination; DEF and PAUSE
  • Letters
    RUNning with Reduced RAM, Brick Busters, Help, Upgrading Problem, Inverse Matrix.
  • Letters
    Adding a Joystick; Making Backups for ML Tapes; Hardware Problems; Help
  • Letters
    Comet Crusher; DEF; Draw It; Strong KBD Signals; List Learning; Pantry Inventory; Lunar Lander.
  • Letters
    Payroll: Follow-up to article in v3 n2 Sync; adding printing ability.
  • Letters
    Uses of 64K RAM; 2068; Bulletin Boards; ZTX-650 Transistor; Correction to ‘Say What’
  • Letters
    Our Face is Red!; Four Tips for MicroAce Owners; Channel 2 Interference Problem Cure.
  • Letters
  • Letters
    REM on the 4K ROM; Mini-Billboard for 8K ROM; “Bar Charts” and Rubber Cement; Splitting Strings; Short Video Cable; The 5-6 Seconds of Silence.
  • Letters
    Thick Black Bars; Help Wanted; Scrolling REM Statements; Cecil Bridges’ LED Load Monitor.
  • Letters
    8K ROM Double Images; Taxman; An Inventory System; Hampson’s Plane; Flag Use Tip; ZX80/81 World; The Great Circle Route.
  • Letters
    Help Wanted, SGN and Inventory.
  • Letters
    Help Wanted, Program Problems, ZX80 Slow Mode, The Hidden Chessmen
  • Letters
    ROMs and RAMS, Memory Saving Tips, The SAVE Signal.
  • Letters
    LSCROLL, Flag Use, Key and Token Expressions, Hams and the ZX81, ZX80 ROMs, Hardware Suggestion, Inventory
  • Letters: 2068
    Enthusiastic reaction to the 2068.
  • Letters: Bulletin Boards
    Reader requests list of BBSes.
  • Letters: Say What
    Suggestion for improving code in “Say What” (Sync 3:6).
  • Letters: The ZTX-650 Transistor
    Replacements for the transistor.
  • Line Print Utility
    Reading computer-style text, where the words get chopped off at the end of the line, is easy enough once you get the hang of it. However, if the printout of a program is intended for use by people not used to this style, it is friendlier to PRINT out the text in a more legible
  • Linear Regression
    Computes the linear relationship between two sets of variables, expressed as the linear regression equation, and calculates the coefficient of determination, an indicator of the strength of the relationship. Given a set of two variables labelled X and Y, the program will yield an equation describing Y as a function of X.
  • Linsac's Game Programs 1 and 2: A Review
    Reivew of games cassettes from Linsac. Games include Three Towers (Towers of Hanoi), Guess a Number, Mastermind, Sketcher (simple drawing program), Hurkle, Nim, Symbol Simon, Nine Lives, The Maze Game, Plain Sailing, Noughts and Crosses, Chinese Puzzle, Tower of Hanoi and Battleships.
  • List Learning with the Sinclair
    The Sinclair computers can be effective learning aids if the student or teacher has the software to set up learning situations. A program to assist in the learning process should meet several criteria. First, it should be self-explanatory. Second, it should have different modes of operation. Third, it should be practical as a learning tool.
  • Looking inside the ZX80
    Basic routines to show the ROM contents.
  • Looping the Loop
    How can you do long, complicated jobs using machines code— without having to write long, complicated programs in machine code? The answer, in a word: loops.
  • LSCROLL - For Spectacular Screen Displays
    How would you like to be able to create a “Times Square” display which moves from right to left without upsetting other items on your ZX81 (or 8K ROM ZX80) screen? Would you like to display graphs or functions such as a sine wave on your screen when they need more than 32 columns of
  • Lunar Lander
    You are the Command Pilot of the Lunar Lander SYNC. You are now in the final stages of your descent and you must make your landing before your fuel runs out. You select the thrust settings from your keyboard control system by pressing a key from 1 to 10. The computer does not wait for
  • Machine Code and Your TV Screen
  • Machine Code Keyboard Scanning Program
    Machine code routine to decode the keyboard and a Basic program for entering/saving machine code programs.
  • Machine Language Programming Made Simple
    Review of Machine Language Programming Made Simple for your Sinclair ZX80 and ZX81.
  • Machine Language Storage in REM
    When a series of consecutive REM statements is to be used to provide storage for machine language the leading four bytes of the second and subsequent REMs cannot simply be overwritten. Your machine language program would almost certainly crash. The solution is relatively simple. Change the byte count of the first REM statement to include
  • Machine Language Teaches the ZX80 to READ
    Simulate the READ command with machine language routine.
  • Machine Language Teaches the ZX80 to READ
    In Part 1 (SYNC 1:5) we saw what a READ statement is, how it functions, how to run a machine language subprogram with the USR function, and how to get your machine code into memory with Basic loader program. In this part I will give you the machine language READ subroutine, present a few tips
  • Macro Photo
    This program will allow the photographer to input the data which the ZX81 will use to figure the adjusted exposure time (for bellows length and reciprocity), the proper subject to lens distance, and the proper film to lens distance for a given image magnification.
  • Making Backups for Machine Language Tapes
    There are two methods which can be used to make a backup: copying to a second tape or use the PEEK and POKE facilities of the ZX81.
  • Making Music with the ZON X-81
    Programming the ZON, Bi-Pak’s sound generator, to play a simple tune is no simple task. On the other hand, it is far from impossible, and this article should be of help to aspiring computer musicians.
  • Making Music with the ZX80
  • Managing with the ZX81
    The program below, written for a ZX81 with 16K RAM, is designed to answer management questions. It is, in fact, a suite of five programs linked together, with an initial menu to enable the user to choose from among them. It is based on a series of rapid statistical tests devised by Eric Duckworth, a
  • Maps and the ZX80/81
    In this article, we will examine some ways of putting maps into your ZX80 or ZX81. We will also see how the Sinclair computers can generate complex maps by themselves.
  • Mastering Machine Code on Your ZX81
    Though written for the ZX81, Mastering Machine Code on Your ZX81 applies equally well to the Timex Sinclair 1000. Each chapter also includes addressing and programming procedures for the ZX80. The light conversational style is both entertaining and understandable.
  • Mastermind
    This game is played much like the original board version. The computer selects a code of four colors from a possible six: red. orange, yellow, green, blue, and white (duplicates allowed). It is now up to you to find, in nine moves or less, the exact color and position of each element of the code
  • Math Support from Your ZX81
    Four routines to help with math or algebra.
  • Mazogs
    In Mazogs you are an adventurer searching for a treasure in a HUGE maze. You must find the treasure and return to the entrance of the maze within a certain number of moves. Scattered throughout the maze are creatures called Mazogs whose job is to stop and kill you. You can kill them if you
  • Meditations on a Hypotrochoid
    The plotting capacity of the ZX80(81) enables even the least artistically talented to create some pretty dazzling displays. The much denigrated sine and cosine functions conceal mathematical mysteries that are invisible to mere number crunchers.
  • Memopak High Resolution Graphics Module
    The Memopak High Resolution Graphics Module, in dull black matching the computer, fits in between the Memopak parallel printer interface and the 64K memory module. Velcro tape or double sided adhesive tape comes with each unit to ensure a wobble-free set-up.
  • Memory Display
    The Memoir Display Program presents 16 bytes of memory in binary, octal, decimal, and character. You can enter a one to four-digit hexadecimal starting address, or hit NEWLINE, if you want to continue without a new entry.
  • Memory Scrunching on the TS1000 and ZX81
    One of the most serious problems that TS1000 users are faced with (and ZX81 users even more so) is the lack of memory (RAM). Most commercial programs require a 16K RAM pack, and many printed in newsletters and magazines require over 2K (or 1K for ZX81 people). Although the package or listing calls for 16K,
  • Merging With Randomness
    Seeding the RND function for greater randomness.
  • Meteors
    How to use the display file; demonstrated in a video game.
  • Micro Invaders
    In Galaxy Invaders, you are under attack by a fleet of enemy spacecraft which you must destroy before they destroy you.
  • Micro Juice
    Owners of the Sinclair ZX80 and MicroAce rapidly discover that interruptions of power can cause headaches, not to mention the necessity for re-keying programs.
  • MicroAce Video Upgrade
    Smooth flicker free graphics has been the “impossible dream” for Sinclair ZX80 or MicroAce owners, at least until recently. It has been particularly frustrating to have the new 8K ROM and realize that this capability exists on the chip but is denied the ZX80 user! The MicroAce Video Upgrade was designed to eliminate this problem,
  • Mini-Billboard
    Program to print an eight character string on two rather large lines to create a “Mini-Billboard” on the TV screen.
  • Minotaur
    This active-animation program displays a full-screen picture of a maze, and shows your progress through it to its only exit. Meanwhile, the Minotaur (a mythical half-man, half-bull creature which inhabited the Labyrinth at Minos) is on the prowl and determined to have you for lunch!
  • Miscellaneous Products and Services
  • More Truth in Programming
    As long as an expression produces only logical values (0 or -1), you can safely use NOT. Expressions such as IF NOT (A = B) THEN GO TO 10 or IF NOT (X 5 AND Y 8) THEN GO TO 10 are fine. They only deal with logical operators. The value inside the parentheses will
  • Motorcycle Race Game
    Test your skill and luck on a ZX80 motorcycle! In this game you compete with another rider on a 32 mile track on which you meet various obstacles and road conditions. The key to winning the race is meeting the obstacles with just the right speed.
  • Multi-Dimensional Arrays for the ZX80
    Techniques for simulating multi-dimensional arrays on the ZX80.
  • Multiplication Three-in-a-Row
    “Multiplication Three-in-a Row” is based on the program “Multiplication Bingo,” by Jean Wilson, Special Education teacher at Leadville High School, Leadville, Colorado. She was seeking a way to motivate students who were having difficulty learning to multiply and found that completing five in a row on a Bingo board helped supply the motivation. An array
  • Multisave
    Wouldn’t it be nice 1) to key in the number of saves required and leave the ZX81 to complete that number of identical copies? 2) not have to check what variables have been assigned before incorporating this feature in a program? 3) to retain the normal, single-save mode? If this appeals to you, try the
  • New Peripherals from Sinclair
    Printer, flat screen display and 8K ROM. Clive Sinclair has withdrawn the 8K Basic ROM chip for the ZX-80 until the first quarter of 1981. This occurred only a month after it was announced to the world (September 11, 1980). He denies rumors that software bugs are the cause and blames the delay instead on
  • Nicomacus
    Program determines number you are thinking of (between 1 and 100) by successively dividing it by 3, 5, and 7.
  • Nine Defenders Against the Aliens
    Review of Quicksilva’s Defender.
  • Parcle
    Machine language routine to clear just part of the screen.
  • Perceptions
    SYNCSUM is a method of checking whether you have entered the program correctly. If you are submitting an article, we ask you to include the SYNCSUM at the end of any program listing.
  • Perceptions
    A ROM Munching Session; Video Sync Signals; Video Modulator Drive Circuitry; Loading.
  • Perceptions
    Conversions: 4K ROM to 8K ROM and 8K ROM to 4K ROM
  • Perceptions
    4K and 8K ROM Command Conversions
  • Perceptions
    In this issue I will discuss the ZX80/81’s display system. The ZX80/81 video display is created almost entirely by software. All sync (vertical and horizontal) is generated by 10 instructions in the display routine.
  • Perceptions
    The ZX81 Parser and User-Defined Commands; More on the 16K RAM Pack Schematic; Addenda to “The ZX80/81 Video Display System.”
  • Perceptions
    The ZX81 Parser (Part 2). In the last issue I began a discussion of the ZX81’s parser which is a complex and tricky combination of software techniques. In this article, I will continue the discussion by detailing the main parser routines.
  • Perceptions
    This article is the third in a series discussing the ZX81 Parser. Since the first two articles may have been a bit too abstract for some readers, I hope this discussion will pull the previous articles together.
  • Perceptions
    In this issue Perceptions will take up I/O (Input/Output) ports. The fundamental issues are discussed, and a sample method for their application to the TS1000/ZX81 is described.
  • Perceptions
    The TS2000 series of computers claims an extensive group of features – both hardware and software. The machines feature 24K ROM. The TS2048 has 16K RAM at its disposal while the TS2068 wields a well-utilized 48K RAM.
  • Perceptions: Syncsums
    Short program to provide checksums to users as they type in programs, to ensure they’ve been entered correctly.
  • Plotting with 4K Basic
    If you have only 1K of RAM, this program provides you with a field of 10 lines by 7 columns for plotting. Pixel graphics provide 280 plotting positions: the field is 20 pixels high by 14 pixels wide.
  • Pounds and Pence, Dollars and Cents
    Programs for working with decimals in 4K ROM.
  • Product Preview
    Mentions CAI Instruments devices, graphics device from Innovision, speech recognition unit from Voicetek and Sinclair 8K ROM and 16K RAM pack.
  • Programming Boule
    Implementation of the casino game.
  • Programming the LOAD Command
    Do you have some machine code programs stored on tape that require POKEing RAMTOP before LOADing the program from cassette? Or are you writing your Basic programs around a favorite machine code POKEing routine? If so, knowing how to program the LOAD command can be a real convenience.
  • Programming Your Computer
    Programming aids, utilities, toolkits, assemblers, disassemblers, compilers, monitors.
    The QSAVE package consists of: 1) a hardware unit, 2) a software program, and 3) an instruction booklet. It performs tape SAVE, LOAD, and verify at 4000 BAUD.
  • Quick-draw!
    More than two years ago, Sinclair announced that the 4K ROM of the ZX80 would be expanded to an 8K ROM and that one of the new commands would be DRAW. DRAW was just what it sounded like— a command to draw a line on the TV screen. But DRAW never came to be. Even
  • Random Walks
    A program “Random Walks” for the ZX81 duplicates the Hexstat. It is an eye-catching, pretty display and very effective as an instructional device. Over a period of 15 minutes or so a series of “balls” falls down through a cascade or sieve to form 9 columns whose heights are proportional to the respective probabilities of
  • Renumbering Basic Statements
    This article presents two Basic renumbering programs in Sinclair Basic for the 8K ROM. The first program can be used with 1K or 16K RAM. It only renumbers the Basic statements. It does not do anything about the destination addresses for GOSUB and GOTO keywords that must be changed after a program is renumbered. The
  • Repeat Key Option
    A repeat key option is relatively simple to build and install.
  • Resources (Sync v1 n4)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v1 n5)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v1 n6)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n1)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n2)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n3)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n4)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n5)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v2 n6)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v3 n1)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v3 n2)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v3 n5)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v3 n6)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v4 n1)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources (Sync v4 n2)
    Listing of new user groups, books and other resources.
  • Resources for the ZX-80 and MicroAce (Sync v1 n1)
    Currently available hardware, software, books and user groups and newsleters.
  • Resources for the ZX80 and MicroAce (Sync v1 n2)
    Companies and organizations with products related to the ZX80.
  • Resources for the ZX80 and MicroAce (Sync v1 n3)
    Entries from manufacturers and readers. Includes the name of the item, a brief description, price and complete data on how to obtain it.
  • Review: ZX80 Pocket Book
  • Review: ZX80 Programs
  • Robot Composer
    As Richard Forsen has noted, a series of tones can be generated by a series of FOR-NEXT loops. However, we are not accustomed to hearing this pitch scale of tones, and the duration of the tones varies inversely with the pitch. The Robot Composer corrects these deficiencies in this pitch scale and generates rhythmic, melodic
  • Robotics on a Budget
    The Project A little over a year ago I decided to start building a robot. I had no idea that it would lead to a project fully controlled by a computer. However, as I started reading more about robots and the robotics law, I realized that a true robot had to be a self-contained entity
  • Rounding Off with Conditional Tests
    We have all learned in plane geometry classes the Pythagorean theorem: a squared plus b squared equals c squared. Thus, if we know two sides of a right triangle, we can easily calculate the third. Or can we?
  • RUNning with Reduced RAM
    For most of us, the anticipation of being able to write extended programs when we first plugged in our new 16K RAM pack was soon somewhat tempered by the waiting out of the monotonous count at the end of every SAVE and LOAD. Also, functions such as CLS and NEW take much longer.
  • Safe Machine Code Routines
    More and more programs are appearing in SYNC, under the rubric of “machine language.” There was a time, not too long ago, when personal computer users were notoriously shy about venturing into these jungles. Nowadays, though, even someone who is not quite comfortable in Basic can manage to key in and run programs in Z80
  • Saving Your Fingers
    Edit existing lines and renumber to create multiple instances where the lines are very similar.
  • Say What?
    Simple speech recognition hardware and program for ZX/TS computers (with at least 16K RAM). The word “simple” should be emphasized. The program is relatively simple to enter and run. It is limited to recognizing only ten simple words (but ten words of your choice!). It is not designed to replace your keyboard , rather it
  • Schematic of Sinclair 16K RAM Pack
  • Screen Scrolling
    This article shows how a routine can he written and entered into a ZX80 that enables the user to SCROLL the display. In the 4K monitor there is no facility at all for doing other than printing to the last line of the display, and then, when the display is full, the program will stop
  • Sea War
    Sea War starts by scrolling from right to left a very impressive “title page” asking for the number of players (the limit is 2). A rather large ship then travels across the surface of the water and drops your submarine into the water; then the action starts. You are now in a submarine just below
  • Search and Replace Routines
    The routines in are designed to search through a program and replace all occurrences of one character or keyword with another (keywords are represented with one byte, too). The routines can all be entered directly from the keyboard into a 1 REM line.
  • Setting Up Bar Charts
    This program listed works with 1K to chart two years of monthly checking account balances with vertical bars. The graph is set up for a range of $0 to $1500, but can be modified for other ranges with a few changes and some trial-and-error experimentation.
  • Setting Up Bar Charts
    This program listed works with 1K to chart two years of monthly checking account balances with vertical bars. The graph is set up for a range of $0 to $1500, but can be modified for other ranges with a few changes and some trial-and-error experimentation.
  • Sinclair 8K ROM Problems?
    How to check for defective 8K ROM.
  • Sinclair ZX Spectrum
    The Spectrum offers colour, high resolution graphics and sound and, at the price, it has just got to be the best value for the money around.
  • Sinclair ZX80
    Sinclair Research set out to build a simple to use personal computer running Basic and capable of breaking the psychological price barrier of $200. Well, they succeeded with their ZX80. Why ZX80? No reason really except that it’s based on an NEC copy of the Z80 processor chip . . . and it sounds nice.
  • Sinclair ZX81/Timex Sinclair 1000 Statistics
    Review of Sinclair ZX81/Timex Sinclair 1000 Statistics: Twelve 16K Programs Including Multif actor Analysis of Variance by A. H. Wolach and M. A. McHale.
  • So You Wished You Had Bought a TS2000
    How would you like to have a computer with a color video display of fifteen colors, quality sound, high resolution, unlimited character sets, and a dual joystick interface? How would you like a system in which you do not have to worry about expansion? If you have a ZX81 (or ZX80 with the 8K ROM),
  • Software Review: And the Walls Came Tumbling Down
    After the successful introduction of Super ZX80 Invasion, Softsync has come out with Double Breakout, its second active display game. Double Breakout is just as much fun as Super ZX80 Invasion, and even more challenging. This, too, fits into 1K of memory.
  • Software Review: Unfriendly Skies
    Softsync’s Super ZX80 Invasion. Using an active display to produce true animation. The tape comes with both 1K and 2K versions of the game.
  • Software Review: ZX Galaxians
    Review of the Artic Computing program.
  • Solving Implicit Functions on the ZX81
    The computer can handle problems of this kind by making a series of successive approximations: try out any value of X, and see if it gives the Y you want; if it does not, then try another value of X.
  • Space Taxi
    You are the pilot of a space taxi in the year 2081. You have just picked up a fare who must catch the next ship to Zeta Chi LXXXI. Naturally, there is a big tip if you make it in one piece. You control your taxi by the 6 and 7 keys to avoid the
  • Space Warp - A Graphics Space Game
    The objective of Space Warp is to reach your base before running out of fuel. In order to do this, you must think ahead and consider how your speed will affect your fuel consumption.
  • Speech Synthesizers
    Your ZX/TS computer can talk to you, with the help of a ‘Speech Synthesizer’ system. Speech or voice synthesis systems are combinations of hardware and software which, when tied in with your computer, can put electronically generated sounds and noises together into intelligible words and phrases. There are currently at least 16 semiconductor houses producing
  • Split and Save
    Would you like to freeze the upper part of your display screen? With “Split ‘n Save” you can! While the information in the lower portion is appearing and disappearing, any test or graphics in the upper portion remain on view.
  • Staff: Teacher and Tester
    The ability to name notes on the staff is a necessary skill for even the novice musician. “Staff” is a versatile music education program that reviews notes from the first ledger line below the staff to the first ledger line above. Although the program includes the necessary lines for use with the ZON X-81 sound
  • Starblasters
    In “Starblasters” you must defend a sector of space from the invading alien spaceships. Your weapon is a powerful ion beam. But beware! The aliens can fire back. They can blow up your ship or even overrun your sector. Although you have five excellent ships in your fleet, you must be quick, skillful, and sometimes
  • Storing 3-Letter Words in an Array
    I wanted to develop a method of storing as many three-letter words as possible in my 1K ZX80). using as little memory as possible. The solution is based on the fact that charaeter numbers of the letters can be compounded into a single number, which can be stored in an array element. Thus three letters
  • Stringing along with the ZX81
    Using string statement to emulate READ/DATA by slicing the characters from the string which make up a data-set, converting the sliced substrings to a numerical value, if necessary, and then using these substrings as program variables.
  • Suppliers
  • SYNC at the Library
    Books available about the TS1000/ZX81 and TS2000/Spectrum.
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC in the Classroom; ROMs and RAMs.
  • Sync Notes
    Sinclair and Timex owners across USA will be adding LPRINT state merits to their favorite programs. They will soon find out that there are some bugs in the LPRINT Command. The problem is not in the printer, but in the Sinclair 8K ROM. The first bug involves the improper printing of numbers between .01 and
  • Sync Notes
    How to Use the Buyers Guide; The TS1000 for $69.96; Glitchoidz Report; Printers
  • Sync Notes
    Timex/Sinclair 2000; SYNC on the Job.
  • Sync Notes
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC in the Home Office, Coming Issues, Writing for SYNC, TS1500 and TS2068.
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC at the Concert; Timex/Sinclair Celebration; ZX Microdrive.
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC at the Drawing Board; Theme Sections Coming; The ZX81 BASIC Programming Manual; SYNC is Growing! You CAn help!
  • Sync Notes
    Introduction to special issue, describing regular content of the magazine. Includes instructions for potential authors.
  • Sync Notes
    Editorial about the issue.
  • Sync Notes
    Discussion of current issue, announcements of Timex Command Cartridge.
  • Sync Notes
    ZX81 —The Family Increases; PERCEPTIONS; SYNCSUM; Spaces in PRINT Statements; MicroAce II????; SYNC Subscribers Pass the 6000 Mark; A P.S. from Alger Salt.
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC program listings; 8K ROM problems; SYNC subscriptions; ZX Microfair; SYNC in Microcomputer Index; SYNC Notes: UK; Sinclair Launches the ZX Printer; Sinclair to Sell ZX81 Retail.
  • Sync Notes
    ZX Microfair Report; ZX81 Launched in the U.S.; The World of Compukid; Second ZX Microfair to be Held
  • Sync Notes
    MicroAce Discontinues U.S. Operations; Sinclair to Replace Defective MicroAce 8K ROMs; Sinclair Policy Change on Technical Phone Inquiries; Sync Notes U.K. Win a 1000 pounds
  • Sync Notes
    The Second ZX Microfair Report
  • Sync Notes
    Timex Sinclair 1000; Questions about Sync.
  • Sync Notes
    SYNC in Outer Space: Space games lead the list of games that SYNC receives.
  • SYNC Reader Survey
  • System Expansion Hardware
    System Enclosures and Radio Frequency Interference; an add-on expansion bus.
  • Tax Shelter Time Bomb
    Calculate the point at which a tax shelter returns taxable income.
  • Teaching with the ZX81
    The Educational ZX80/1 Users 1 Group (EZUG) had a triple celebration in January. First, we were able to breathe a sigh of relief that we had survived a year of frenzied activity. Secondly, we welcomed the thousandth subscriber to our bimonthly newsletter. Thirdly, we launched our first educational ZX81 programs, fourteen of them in fact.
  • The "QS Sound Board" for the ZX80/81
    Based on the extremely versatile AY-3-8910 sound generator chip, the QS Sound Board features complete software control of the frequency and amplitude of three independent output channels as well as an envelope shaper and noise channel. Mentions QS Motherboard, which allows connecting 16K RAM and sound board at the same time.
  • The "QS Sound Board" for the ZX80/81
    Based on the extremely versatile AY-3-8910 sound generator chip, the QS Sound Board features complete software control of the frequency and amplitude of three independent output channels as well as an envelope shaper and noise channel. Mentions QS Motherboard, which allows connecting 16K RAM and sound board at the same time.
  • The Aerco Disk Drive System
    The disk drives sold by Aerco are Pertec FD 250 units. Any Shugart type drive could be used, but at $189 each from Aerco I felt this was the best price around. The Aerco disk drive unit transfers data at a rate of 250,000 bits per second. Disks (soft sectored, double density, double sided) accommodate
  • The Amazing Active Display and Breakout
    Review of a utility program and game.
  • The Anatomy of a Program Line
    In-depth analysis of how the Timex 1000 and 2068 store and process program lines.
  • The Array Advantage
    Discussion of arrays with examples.
  • The Bookshelf Goes Supernova
    Books about the Spectrum.
  • The Circle Game
    Drawing circles in BASIC and machine language.
  • The Complete Sinclair ZX81 Basic Couse
    Review of book/tapes by the same title.
  • The Exploding Bookshelf
    Books published about SincIair/MicroAce computers.
  • The Fantastic Music Machine and Light Show
    The Fantastic Music Machine is a unique program that transforms your computer keyboard into a 3-octave musical instrument with reasonably good tonal quality with 16K it can handle up to 7000 notes.
  • The Game of Life Revisited - An Assembly Version
    The Game of Life, printed in SYNC 1:2 (pp. 28-30), was written in Basic. This Basic program may be replaced with an assembly subroutine which displays each succeeding generation within a fraction of the time needed by the Basic program. Each generation is constructed and then displayed by using another assembly subroutine for creating a
  • The Great Circle Route
    “The Great Circle Route” shows something of its possibilities. After entering the program on your computer, enter the latitude and longitude of any two points in the world, and the computer will calculate and display the distance between them. This is the “great circle route.”
  • The Great RAM Rescue
    Remap the internal RAM to the 8K-16K block. For ZX/TS computers with a 16K RAM pack.
  • The Hidden Chessmen
    The Hidden Chessmen is a search and find game like Hurkle. A knight, a bishop, and a rook are hidden on a chessboard by the computer. You begin the play by guessing a square on the chessboard. The computer tells you if you have found a chess piece and/or what pieces are attacking the square.
  • The Home Computer Market, the ZX80 and the Future
    Excerpts of a speech given to the Amateur Computer Group of New Jersey, December 11, 1980.
  • The Intercontroller
    Review of Intercomputer’s Intercontroller HV bus device.
  • The Linear Search
    Do you want to store and retrieve information with your computer? This program uses a machine language search routine that is so fast you can blitz through a full 13000 bytes of files to find the one you want in less than a second! The program uses Basic to create files and PRINT found ones.
  • The Logical Operators
    AND and OR have two distinct usages in Sinclair Basic. One mirrors their use in English and is easily understood; the second is less straightforward, but is an extremely versatile programming technique. NOT, the third logical operator, is unfortunately overlooked or ignored by many beginner programmers; it, too, can be a powerful programming tool.
  • The PEEK Function and the POKE Command
    This article returns to Basic to discuss the PEEK function and the POKE command. Since the 8K ROM is now widely available, both the 4K ROM and the 8K ROM are included in the discussion and program illustrations.
  • The Quicksilva Programmable Character Generator
    The Quicksilva Programmable Character Generator is a single circuit board which plugs into the QS Motherboard or the QS Edge Connector which plugs into the back of the ZX81. Once installed, it lets the user program 128 different characters rather than the previous 64 and their inverses. After the board has been programmed, it can
  • The ROMPAK System
    Review of a expansion board that supports EPROMs in the 8-16K block; board uses a ZIF socket. The company had several programs on EPROM.
  • The Sinclair Grade Book
    In preparing a grade book program for the Sinclair, it was first necessary to decide upon the form the recorded data should be returned in. One of the advantages of a good program is that it may be returned in any number of forms, at the operator’s discretion.In the following program, I have included provisions
  • The Stock Market Calculator
    The Stock Market Calculator helps the investor (or user) solve the complex equations inherent in Investment Analysis.
  • The SYNC Challenge
    Winners of the challenge printed in the first issue.
  • The SYNC Challenge: Hammurabi
    Challenge to readers to get Hammurabi from Creative Computing’s Basic Computer Games converted to work on the 1K ZX-80.
  • The Thurnall System
    The TE devices are a sound investment: They are well built and at a reasonable price for Sinclair expansion. If you do not have any electronic experience or applications along those lines, you will probably be interested only in the parallel port and the joysticks.
  • The Times They are a' Changing: The Building of a MicroAce
    What do you get with the MicroAce? It comes with processor, cassette interface, pressure-sensitive keyboard, video interface, power supply, 2K of RAM memory and a 4K Basic in ROM.
  • The Timex/Sinclair 2040 Personal Printer
    At $99.95, the 2040 is the cheapest printer on the market designed specifically for the TS1000 or ZX81. Although it is by no means comparable to an 80 column, 8 1/2 inch paper cruncher, its 4 inch, 32 character format is adequate for its intended purpose, to produce legible hard copy of displays and program
  • The TL$ Function
    Do not overlook the use of the TL$ function when you are creating programs. It is a very useful item. This function allows the ZX80 user to process a string in much the same way that other computers READ DATA statements.
  • The Unprintable Characters
  • The Votem
    The Votem, to play on James J. Carr’s book Digital Interfacing to an Analog World (Tab Books, Summit, PA. 1978), is an analog interface to Sinclair’s digital world. Analog/Digital Conversion Analog (related to analogous) refers to relationships by ratios. The analog device relates numbers to a turn on a wheel such as our rapidly disappearing
  • The Zedex Microfair
    Touted as the “largest single display of ZX products under one roof anywhere,” this 4th ZX Microfair more than lived up to its reputation. The fair offered 80 tables worth of hardware, software, peripherals, books, etc. for the ZX81 and Sinclair Spectrum.
  • The ZON X-81 Sound Generator
    The Bi-Pak ZON promises a “huge range of possible sounds.” It certainly has great potential, but that potential is not so easily realized.
  • The ZX Data-Finder
    The ZX Data-Finder is one of quite a variety of data handling programs now available. Typical uses for such programs include: names & addresses; inventory catalogues; customer/client records; graphic charts; product descriptions; statistics; appointment calendar; personnel files; hobby collection/with cross referencing. ZX Data-Finder does these and more because the flexibility of the program lends itself
  • The ZX Pro/File
    Review of Thomas Woods’ data base program.
  • The ZX Stock Exchange
    You have just inherited $10,000 from a wealthy uncle who made it big on the stock market. He also gave you the modem number of his broker, a computer. The ZX Stock Exchange carries stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange as well as stocks not listed there.
  • The ZX80 as a Cipher Machine
    Implementation of the Vigenere cipher.
  • The ZX80 Companion - A Review
  • The ZX80 Keyboard
    Technical description of the keyboard, schematic of the associated circuitry and machine language code for accessing the keyboard.
  • The ZX80 Magic Book - A Review
  • The ZX80 Makes the Grade
    In this article we present two programs running on the 1K Basic machine. The first determines the test scores and keeps track of which question caused the class the greatest difficulty. The second finds the class distribution of grades, enabling the teacher to scale the grades.
  • The ZX80/1 As Fortune Cookie
    In addition to reputed oracular powers, the I Ching has proven to be a source of fascination for mathematicians and computer scientists. This ancient Chinese system of divination comprises one of the earliest known examples of a binary counting scheme.
  • The ZX81 Companion
    The ZX81 Companion, like other ZX81 books, is totally applicable to the TS1000. It begins with a chapter on graphics techniques. First the screen field is explained. Then PLOT and UNPLOT are used to develop the basic components in graphics: drawing straight lines, using triangles, circles, parabolas, and ellipses, and moving a point around the
  • Tic Tac Toe or Noughts and Crosses
    On a computer with a very limited amount of memory (1K) even a simple game like Tic Tac Toe might be a problem to fit. This version of the well known game is short and simple, anyone will be able to understand it.
  • Tidying Up Your Display
    Routines to print, display and sum series of values.
  • Timex Developments
  • Timex, Sinclair, and the Clones
    At the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, there was much fan-fare surrounding the official introduction of the Timex/Sinclair 2000. Dan Ross, Vice-President for Computer Products, and the entire Timex crew were there as well as Clive Sinclair and Nigel Searle from Sinclair Research in Britain. On a much lower key, a Sinclair clone
  • Tioga Toads
    In the following program, three of these toads hop across the screen and announce their order of arrival at the finish line. When all of the toads have finished, the race results are printed on a scoreboard making lavish use of inverse characters.
  • TR$ and LET A$=A$+B$ on the ZX80
    String handling on the ZX80 is reasonably good. The 4K Integer Basic lets the user print, input, and compare strings. and do specialized routines that will transform numbers into strings or characters. Sinclair’s Integer Basic has no string concatenation commands at all. The first will truncate a string from the right side, the second will
  • Translating From Other Basics
    Translating ON … GOTO and LEN() to 4K BASIC.
  • Truth in Programming
    It’s time for a little truth in programming, time for a bit of logic. Why let your programs slave away with boring numbers when they can deal with such fascinating concepts as truth and falsity? The logical capabilities of the Sinclair represent one of the best ways to shorten and speed up programs. Many programers
  • Try This
    Short programs from readers.
  • Try This
    Two line program.
  • Try This
  • Try This
  • Try This
  • Try This
    Get a small AM radio and tune it for best response. Then press RUN and NEWLINE. Note the sound as you press NEWLINE. The display may be ignored.
  • Try This
    This column will feature short programs to show off your computer, impress your family and friends, and tickle your imagination when SYNC arrives at your place.
  • Try This
    Type in the following program. Then RUN and NEWLINE. Type in any character or symbol when the quotation marks appear and hit NEWLINE again. Observe the results. Repeat until you get back to program.
  • Try This
  • Try This
    Three short programs.
  • Try This
  • Try This
  • Try This
  • Try This
  • Try This
    Short program.
  • TS2068 Programming Tips
    Graphics programming techniques for the 2068.
  • Turtle Graphics
    Have you ever wished for an easier way to create graphics displays on your Sinclair computer? You can always use a line drawing program and a table of coordinates, but setting up the table can be tedious. The LOGO language, developed by the artificial intelligence group at MIT, has a graphics system called Turtle Graphics
  • Two Challenges of Taxman
    The computer will lay out the integers from 1 to a maximum which you have entered. You pick one of these numbers; Taxman gets all the remaining factors of that number. If there are no remaining factors of the number chosen, you cannot have it. When there are no remaining factors of any unchosen number,
  • Two Switch Human Interface for the Communicative Impaired
    The program will usually display three rows of characters on the screen at any lime: the upper alphabet (UA) row, the lower alphabet (LA) row, and the message row. which will be empty at first. The program allows the user to select letters from the alphabet rows for display in the message row.
  • Understanding Floating-point Arithmetic, Part 2
    Describes the workings on the ‘third language’ of the 8K ROM – the CALCULATOR LANGUAGE – that is used to add, subtract, multiply, divide and generally manipulate floating-point numbers.
  • Understanding Floating-point Arithmetic, Part 3
    In this article on floating-point arithmetic, we will consider the algorithms that are used in the 8K ROM program to perform the operations of subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division.
  • Understanding Floating-point Arithmetic: Part 1
    The aim of this article is to give the reader some insight into the complex world of floating-point arithmetic. Since the 4K ROM provided only integer arithmetic, readers who possess only this ROM will be unable to try the programs. Nevertheless they will be able to follow the text.
  • Understanding Number Systems
    This explanation of number systems was written to explain the working of my home computer to my son. It is all too easy to destroy enthusiasm for learning by trying to teach a technical subject from generalizations (boring) or from technical terms (confusing); either way can be self-defeating.
  • Understanding Your ZX81 ROM
    SYNC readers will recognize Dr. Logan as a major ZX80/81 expert whose writings are well worthwhile. Understanding Your ZX81 ROM is no exception. The book is written for a serious beginner who has a fairly good knowledge of Basic and wishes to take advantage of Z80 machine code execution speed. It supplements, but does not
  • Using Key and Token Expressions
    Keywords as well as tokens could be typed into program lines in full — spaces and all— with practically a single keystroke.
  • Using Key and Token Expressions
    Keywords as well as tokens could be typed into program lines in full — spaces and all— with practically a single keystroke.
  • Using RAM Packs
    Using a 16K RAM pack on the 1500 and 64K RAM on the 1000.
  • Using the Byte-Back BB-1 and the ZX81 as a Control Device
    Describes using the ZX81 and Byte-Back device with a Skinner box.
  • Using the Byte-Back Modem
    The Byte-Back modem is a fine device. It works well and actually does more than advertised. The instruction manual, on the other hand, in its attempt to furnish operating instructions, assembly instructions, and engineering data, is a bit sketchy. A description of the non-standard output on the RS232 board is not given nor is there
  • Using the Microace with Sinclair Accessories
    Modifications to allow the Microace to use Sinclair accessories. The 16K RAM module is completely compatible with the MicroAce 1K Kit: the unit can be simply plugged on the back. 8K Basic ROM: the MicroAce kit comes with two track cuts on board, on both sides of pin 21 of the ROM chip. You also
  • Using Your Computer: Programs
    Graphics programs and aids, educational programs, loans, stocks and investments, spreadsheets, checking, inventories, appointments, word processing, miscellaneous programs.
  • Variable Conversions in the ZX80
    There are many cases when it is convenient to convert one type of variable to another, such as numeric to string, or string to numeric. In the ZX80 variable conversions from numeric to string are done with the STR$() function. The reverse conversion is not available with the 4K Basic. Given a string variable containing
  • Video Modifications for the ZX80
    Inverted and direct video.
  • Vu-Calc
    Vu-Calc, developed for the Timex/Sinclair 1000 with 16K RAM, displays a table of 36 columns (numbered 01 through 36) and 26 rows (designated A through Z). Each of the 936 boxes can store up to eight characters, alpha or numeric. The screen displays 27 boxes at a time, three columns by nine rows. The “window”
  • WARP 81: Making a 4K Program Run in 8K
    Details converting a specific program to work with 8K ROM Sinclairs.
  • Watch Where You Are Going
    In many games you need to know if something is already in the space where you are about to print another character. Whether you are firing a missile at a target, having PacMan gobble dots, or checking for a dead end in a maze, the method is the same: calculate the new position tor your
  • What about the '81
    The Spectrum does not replace the ZX81, as the 81 did the 80 – it’s an addition to the range and the ZX81 will continute in production. In fact, the production of the 81 is to be increased by a target of 150,000 a month by the end of the year.
  • Whither Clive?
    Some background on how Clive Sinclair came to purchase the DeLorean factory in Ireland to manufacture the C5.
  • Widget
    Widget is a relative of the games Hammurabi and Lemonade Stand, in which the player allocates his resources for the best effect. As the player, you are the head of the United Widget Company, trying to expand your business as rapidly as possible without going broke.
  • Wind Chimes and the ZX/TS Computer
    Recently I wanted to build a set of tuned wind chimes. I knew that the calculations involved could become tedious, so I wrote a short program to do them. This program saved me a good deal of time and trial-and-error labor, and it prevented waste of material.
  • Window
    A machine language monitor is a utility, provided by most computer systems, which aids in the development of machine language programs. Its basic functions are: a) to allow you to view the contents of each byte in the system’s memory, and b) to allow you to change these values. The program provided here will allow
  • Window
    A machine language monitor is a utility, provided by most computer systems, which aids in the development of machine language programs. Its basic functions are: a) to allow you to view the contents of each byte in the system’s memory, and b) to allow you to change these values. The program provided here will allow
  • Word Processing on ZX/TS Computers
    Comparison of wordprocessing and text editing programs for the Timex/Sinclair 1000.
  • Writing for SYNC
  • You May Fire When Ready, Gridley!
    Have you ever wished that you could command a submarine, survey the sea through the periscope to locate the enemy fleet, and give the orders to fire your torpedos at the target ship? Well, now thanks to the ZX80 and the Torpedo Alley program from Zeta Software you ean do just that, and for very
  • Your Timex/Sinclair Can Become a Terminal
    Build a 8251 USART interface to connect a Sinclair to a modem.
  • ZX Destroyer
    ZX Destroyer is a fast moving action game which is written in a hybrid Basic machine language program to create a continuous, flicker free display. The machine language code routine is a carefully synchronized program loop which controls the laser base, alien ship, and video display. The Basic section provides the initial set-up and ending.
  • ZX Maze
    Have you dreamed of writing a graphics game complete with maze, treasure, and gobbling hunter? Perhaps you figured out how to move your man and draw the maze, but how in blazes do you teach your treasure seeker that he cannot just march through walls to collect his prize? Finding a way around this dilemma
  • ZX/TS ROM and RAM Addressing
    Investigation into PEEKing and POKEing outside the 16K-32K address range and how to use a 74LS138 to decode RAM in the 16-32K range.
  • ZX81 Announced in Great Britain
    An improved version of the ZX80 computer, the ZX81 has been redesigned to incorporate a number of new features. The ZX80 reduced the number of integrated circuits to 21, but the ZX81 further reduces the number of chips to four by using a new custom-built chip that replaces 18 others. The 8k Basic ROM chip
  • ZX81 Chess vs. ZX Chess II
    Computer chess is becoming a very popular hobby for those who cannot find opponents on their level, and a large number of ”dedicated” machines are appearing with increasingly greater strengths. Another area of growing popularity is designing a chess program which is more powerful (i.e., a better player) than other chess programs. Two powerful chess
  • ZX81 Hardware Review (UK)
    Listing of products and prices for ZX81 hardware.


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